Posted by: mrborden | September 13, 2014

Week 5 Bacteria and Viruses


From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes How do organisms live, grow, respond to their environment, and reproduce? All living organisms are made of cells. Life is the quality that distinguishes living things—composed of living cells—from nonliving objects or those that have died. While a simple definition of life can be difficult to capture, all living things—that is to say all organisms—can be characterized by common aspects of their structure and functioning. Organisms are complex, organized, and built on a hierarchical structure, with each level providing the foundation for the next, from gthe chemical foundation of elements and atoms, to the cells and systems of individual organisms, to species and populations living and interacting in complex ecosystems. Organisms can be made of a single cell or millions of cells working together and include animals, plants, algae, fungi, bacteria, and all other microorganisms. Organisms respond to stimuli from their environment and actively maintain their internal environment through homeostasis. They grow and reproduce, transferring their genetic information to their offspring. While individual organisms carry the same genetic information over their lifetime, mutation and the transfer from parent to offspring produce new combinations of genes. Over generations natural selection can lead to changes in a species overall; hence, species evolve over time. To maintain all of these processes and functions, organisms require materials and energy from their environment; nearly all energy that sustains life ultimately comes from the sun. LS1.A: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION How do the structures of organisms enable life’s functions? image Sept 15 2014 QFD :A conscience is what hurts when all your other parts feel so good. ?FD : where are the chromosomes located within the eukaryotic cell? Today’s learning objective : students will know and understand the differences in various cell types, their specializations, the differences in structure and function of specific organelles, the hierarchy of cell types in regards to genetic material and DNA structure, by creating and presenting a google doc presentation that describes these differences .. Students will also think about a hypothesis for developing a bacteria colony using a Petri dish with live agar, and a cotton swab. ( we have permission to go almost anywhere in the school to obtain cultures) each group or will be investigating a different place ) 1) presentations of eukaryotic cell analogy H) bacteria , viruses notes Hw : draw and label the bacteria diagram on pg 518 , and 3 viruses from pgs 526,527 image image From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes How do organisms live, grow, respond to their environment, and reproduce? All living organisms are made of cells. Life is the quality that distinguishes living things—composed of living cells—from nonliving objects or those that have died. While a simple definition of life can be difficult to capture, all living things—that is to say all organisms—can be characterized by common aspects of their structure and functioning. Organisms are complex, organized, and built on a hierarchical structure, with each level providing the foundation for the next, from the chemical foundation of elements and atoms, to the cells and systems of individual organisms, to species and populations living and interacting in complex ecosystems. Organisms can be made of a single cell or millions of cells working together and include animals, plants, algae, fungi, bacteria, and all other microorganisms. Organisms respond to stimuli from their environment and actively maintain their internal environment through homeostasis. They grow and reproduce, transferring their genetic information to their offspring. While individual organisms carry the same genetic information over their lifetime, mutation and the transfer from parent to offspring produce new combinations of genes. Over generations natural selection can lead to changes in a species overall; hence, species evolve over time. To maintain all of these processes and functions, organisms require materials and energy from their environment; nearly all energy that sustains life ultimately comes from the sun. LS1.A: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION How do the structures of organisms enable life’s functions? http://youtu.be/TDoGrbpJJ14 http://youtu.be/pcXdfofLoj0 http://youtu.be/0h5Jd7sgQWY http://youtu.be/3xRttWuf3wQ Bacteria Cells vs. Animal Cells The main difference between an animal cell and a bacterial cell is that a bacterial cell contains a plasmid, a ring of DNA, opposed to the chromosomes that animal cells possess. There are other differences, such as size (bacterial cells are many times smaller) and whether or not they contain membrane bound organelles, which bacteria do not. Bacteria cells have also flagella/flagellum that an animal cells (except spermatozoa or sperm cells) does not, a “tail” strand that extends out of the cell to propel it forward. A central feature of life is that organisms grow, reproduce, and die. They have characteristic structures (anatomy and morphology), functions (molecular-scale processes to organism-level physiology), and behaviors (neurobiology and, for some animal species, psychology). Organisms and their parts are made of cells, which are the structural units of life and which themselves have molecular substructures that support their functioning. Organisms range in composition from a single cell (unicellular microorganisms) to multicellular organisms, in which different groups of large numbers of cells work together to form systems In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type. Differentiation occurs numerous times during the development of a multicellular organism as the organism changes from a simple zygote to a complex system of tissues and cell types. Differentiation continues in adulthood as adult stem cells divide and create fully differentiated daughter cells during tissue repair and during normal cell turnover. Differentiation dramatically changes a cell’s size, shape, membrane potential, metabolic activity, and responsiveness to signals. These changes are largely due to highly controlled modifications in gene expression. With a few exceptions, cellular differentiation almost never involves a change in the DNA sequence itself. Thus, different cells can have very different physical characteristics despite having the same genome. A cell that can differentiate into all cell types of the adult organism is known as pluripotent. Such cells are called embryonic stem cells in animals and meristematic cells in higher plants. A cell that can differentiate into all cell types, including the placental tissue, is known as totipotent. In mammals, only the zygote and subsequent blastomeres are totipotent, while in plants many differentiated cells can become totipotent with simple laboratory techniques. In cytopathology, the level of cellular differentiation is used as a measure of cancer progression. “Grade” is a marker of how differentiated a cell in a tumor is. http://youtu.be/CLv3SkF_Eag http://youtu.be/cj8dDTHGJBY image image image Web site on prokaryotic cells 2,000,000,000,000,000 or 10 ? Power of bacteria are in you right now 🙂 Sept 16 2014 QFD : People who say they sleep like a baby usually don’t have one. – Leo J. Burke ?FD : describe how bacteria move? Today’s learning objective : students will know and understand the differences in various cell types, their specializations, the differences in structure and function of specific organelles, the hierarchy of cell types in regards to genetic material and DNA structure, by creating and presenting a google doc presentation that describes these differences .. Students will also think about a hypothesis for developing a bacteria colony using a Petri dish with live agar, and a cotton swab. ( we have permission to go almost anywhere in the school to obtain cultures) each group or will be investigating a different place ) 1) quiz eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic cells and viruses Sept 17 2014 QFD : My ancestors didn’t fight their way to the top of the food chain so I could become a vegetarian ?FD : how do viruses infect other cells ? Describe in a few sentences exactly what happens Today’s learning objective : students will know and understand the differences in various cell types, their specializations, the differences in structure and function of specific organelles, the hierarchy of cell types in regards to genetic material and DNA structure, by creating and presenting a google doc presentation that describes these differences .. Students will also think about a hypothesis for developing a bacteria colony using a Petri dish with live agar, and a cotton swab. ( we have permission to go almost anywhere in the school to obtain cultures) each group or will be investigating a different place ) Sept 18 2014 QFD:All my life I thought air was free until I bought a bag of chips. ?FD: which is the most important organelle in the cell and why? Learning and performance objective:HS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms. Quiz 1) QUIZ 100 points 1 Which of the following is a primary difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? A Prokaryotic cells contain a membrane–bound nucleus, eukaryotic cells do not. B Prokaryotic cells contain DNA, eukaryotic cells do not. C Eukaryotic cells contain a membrane–bound nucleus, prokaryotic cells do not. D Eukaryotic cells contain DNA, prokaryotic cells do not. cellpart2test 2 The characteristics of four different single–celled organisms are shown in the table above. Organism W and organism Z are BEST classified as __________. A eukaryotes B viruses C producers D prokaryotes 3 Euglena is a single–celled organism that has a nucleus, has membrane–bound organelles, and produces food through the process of photosynthesis. Euglena is BEST classified as a __________. A prokaryote B consumer C herbivore D eukaryote 4 You are a research scientist and you come across a specimen. In an attempt to classify the specimen you run a battery of tests and come up with the following observations: there is no cell membrane, genetic material is present but not in the form of a nucleus, there are no ribosomes present, and the specimen has a layer of protein on the outside. Based on this information you determine that the specimen is a(n) __________. A virus B prokaryotic cell C plant cell D animal cell 5 Unlike the prokaryotes, eukaryotic DNA is contained within the __________. A central vacuole B nucleus C peroxisome D cytoplasm 6 Unlike the prokaryotes, eukaryotic DNA is contained within the __________. A Only animal cells have membrane bound organelles. B Only plant cells contain a cell membrane. C Only animal cells contain a true nucleus. D Only plant cells contain chloroplasts. 7 __________ cells have no real nucleus. A Eukaryotic B DNA C Prokaryotic D Plant cell Use the diagram to answer the question(s). cellpartstest (Questions 8-9) 8 What type of cell is shown in the diagram of the cell? A animal B plant C prokaryotic D bacteria 9 What is number 14 shown in the diagram? A cell wall B endoplasmic reticulum C cytoskeleton D plasma membrane 10 Which cell structures are often found attached to the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum? A ribosomes B vesicles C nuclei D golgi apparatus 11 The rough endoplasmic reticulum delivers __________ to the Golgi apparatus, where they are modified, sorted and packaged. A amino acids B ribosomes C lipids D proteins 12 The __________ is responsible for protein translation, folding, and transport of proteins to be used in the cell membrane. A endoplasmic reticulum B lysosome C vacuole D nuclear envelope 13 Inside a eukaryotic cell, the specific organelle whose function emulates a “post office” mechanism where proteins are packaged, repackaged, and distributed according to their role in the organism is called the __________. A nuclear envelope B cytoplasm C Golgi apparatus D nucleolus 14 Mitochondria make __________ for cells by breaking down sugars into carbon dioxide. A oxygen B glucose C water D energy 15 If a cell displays a great amount of activity, one possible reason for this could be that it has large quantities of __________. A contractile vacuoles B cellulose cell walls C chromosomes D mitochondria 16 Plants use sunlight to make usable energy in the form of __________. A sugars B carbon dioxide C water D oxygen 17 Chloroplasts use __________ to make sugars from carbon dioxide. A glucose B ATP C sunlight D oxygen 18 Plants take in __________ from the environment and release __________ back into the environment. A oxygen, nitrogen B oxygen, carbon dioxide C carbon dioxide, nitrogen D carbon dioxide, oxygen 19 Which of the following is the correct chemical equation for photosynthesis? A 6CO2 + C2H12O + light energy → 6h2O + 6O2 B 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + 6O2 C C6H12O6 + light energy → 6O26CO2 + 6H2O D 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + light energy + 6O2 20 __________ is the process plants use to capture the sun’s energy and build carbohydrates that store energy. A Cellular respiration B Fermentation C The citric acid cycle D Photosynthesis 21: What is alive? Which of the following is not alive, but requires life to be able to reproduce? A. Eubacteria B. Fungae C. Protozoa D. Viruses 22: Organelles Which statement best describes the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum? A. Specific transport and signaling systems B. Synthesis and assembly of membrane and secreted proteins C. Production of energy during photosynthesis D. Processing of membrane and secreted proteins, including glycosylation 23: More Organelles Which statement best describes the function of the Golgi apparatus? A. Specific transport and signaling systems B. Synthesis and assembly of membrane and secreted proteins C. Production of energy during photosynthesis D. Processing of membrane and secreted proteins, including glycosylation 24: Cystic fibrosis and membrane receptors In some diseases like cystic fibrosis, a cell membrane receptor fails to function. In the majority of cases, the problem comes from a change in the receptor so that it cannot reach the cell surface. The site in the cell where membrane proteins are synthesized and assembled builds up with the abnormal protein. This site would likely be the: A. nucleus B. mitochondria C. endoplasmic reticulum D. lysosome 25: Organelle not in animal cells The following organelle is found in prokaryotic cells but not eukaryotic cells of animal origin. A. mitochondria B. chloroplasts C. nucleus D. cell wall Sept 18 2014 QFD : Why do people try park as close as the can to the entrance when they go to the gym to work ? ?FD : how bacteria increase in number or multiply ? Where is their genetic material located? Today’s learning objective : students will know and understand the differences in various cell types, their specializations, the differences in structure and function of specific organelles, the hierarchy of cell types in regards to genetic material and DNA structure, by creating and presenting a google doc presentation that describes these differences .. Students will also think about a hypothesis for developing a bacteria colony using a Petri dish with live agar, and a cotton swab. ( we have permission to go almost anywhere in the school to obtain cultures) each group or will be investigating a different place ) http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/eukaryotic-and-prokaryotic-cells-similarities-and-differences.html#lesson Webquest 1 Nucleus Quiz Sept 19 2014 QFD : When all else fails, read the directions. ?FD : compared and contrast the similarities and differences between a eukaryotic cell, a prokaryotic cell and viruses in a perfect paragraph Today’s learning objective : students will know and understand the differences in various cell types, their specializations, the differences in structure and function of specific organelles, the hierarchy of cell types in regards to genetic material and DNA structure, by creating and presenting a google doc presentation that describes these differences .. Students will also think about a hypothesis for developing a bacteria colony using a Petri dish with live agar, and a cotton swab. ( we have permission to go almost anywhere in the school to obtain cultures) each group or will be investigating a different place ) Docs

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Responses

  1. Hi. I don’t know if my other comment posted or whatever but oh well. Anywaysssss, did we have homework this weekend? I don’t remember you saying anything at all about it and people have been asking me if we do.

    • You have to be ready to present , unless u r in 6th period , I wanted the first chapter extra questions done from the packet

  2. Borden, I told meh mom I’m doing el gooda recently and she don’t believe meh can u agree or wut.

    • While I would have to agree that you have improved, turned your homework in on time, and received a good grade on the last assignment, when I check your notebook this Friday , all that will be gone as you still don’t write the warm up, QFD, answer ?FD, and the objective, you also are supposed to write a reflection everyday of what you have learned

  3. Ight, thx

  4. Hey it’s Ciera, what did i miss today for honors? also i heard from another student that i got taken off your class roster?

    • Yes it was quite odd, thought you switched classes, maybe I missed something, you can make up the notes when you are back in class tomorrow or Thursday , quiz tomorrow , it’s online at the bottom of last weeks blog

  5. Did we have any homework today

    • Kevin, finish the worksheet about cells that I gave u with your quiz

  6. I did finish it

  7. I didn’t know if it was homework thanks for telling me


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