Posted by: mrborden | September 7, 2014

Week 4 types of Cells


Sept 8 2014
QFD: in the land of the blind the one eye is king
?FD: did you complete your homework and write a paragraph explaining your views on when life begins ( stem cell article)
Learning and performance objective:HS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms. By taking cornell notes
http://youtu.be/JldH3lS0nnU

From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
How do organisms live, grow, respond to their environment, and reproduce?

All living organisms are made of cells. Life is the quality that distinguishes living things—composed of living cells—from nonliving objects or those that have died. While a simple definition of life can be difficult to capture, all living things—that is to say all organisms—can be characterized by common aspects of their structure and functioning. Organisms are complex, organized, and built on a hierarchical structure, with each level providing the foundation for the next, from the chemical foundation of elements and atoms, to the cells and systems of individual organisms, to species and populations living and interacting in complex ecosystems. Organisms can be made of a single cell or millions of cells working together and include animals, plants, algae, fungi, bacteria, and all other microorganisms.
Organisms respond to stimuli from their environment and actively maintain their internal environment through homeostasis. They grow and reproduce, transferring their genetic information to their offspring. While individual organisms carry the same genetic information over their lifetime, mutation and the transfer from parent to offspring produce new combinations of genes. Over generations natural selection can lead to changes in a species overall; hence, species evolve over time. To maintain all of these processes and functions, organisms require materials and energy from their environment; nearly all energy that sustains life ultimately comes from the sun.
LS1.A: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
How do the structures of organisms enable life’s functions?

A central feature of life is that organisms grow, reproduce, and die. They have characteristic structures (anatomy and morphology), functions (molecular-scale processes to organism-level physiology), and behaviors (neurobiology and, for some animal species, psychology). Organisms and their parts are made of cells, which are the structural units of life and which themselves have molecular substructures that support their functioning. Organisms range in composition from a single cell (unicellular microorganisms) to multicellular organisms, in which different groups of large numbers of cells work together to form systems

In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type. Differentiation occurs numerous times during the development of a multicellular organism as the organism changes from a simple zygote to a complex system of tissues and cell types. Differentiation continues in adulthood as adult stem cells divide and create fully differentiated daughter cells during tissue repair and during normal cell turnover. Differentiation dramatically changes a cell’s size, shape, membrane potential, metabolic activity, and responsiveness to signals. These changes are largely due to highly controlled modifications in gene expression. With a few exceptions, cellular differentiation almost never involves a change in the DNA sequence itself. Thus, different cells can have very different physical characteristics despite having the same genome.

A cell that can differentiate into all cell types of the adult organism is known as pluripotent. Such cells are called embryonic stem cells in animals and meristematic cells in higher plants. A cell that can differentiate into all cell types, including the placental tissue, is known as totipotent. In mammals, only the zygote and subsequent blastomeres are totipotent, while in plants many differentiated cells can become totipotent with simple laboratory techniques. In cytopathology, the level of cellular differentiation is used as a measure of cancer progression. “Grade” is a marker of how differentiated a cell in a tumor is.
http://youtu.be/CLv3SkF_Eag
http://youtu.be/cj8dDTHGJBY
plant-cell
114903-004-924BAFBD

Sept 9 2014
QFD: The pen may be mightier than the sword…but no one in carried one in brave heart
?FD: describe the similarities and differences between a eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell type
Learning and performance objective:HS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.
1) designing an experiment bacteria
http://youtu.be/XZxuQo3ylII
Sept 10 2014
QFD:Fool me once, shame on you; fool me twice, damn you’re good
?FD: describe how viruses replicate
Learning and performance objective:HS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.
http://youtu.be/zhtzRu7HNNA

Webquest
Got to the following website and then answer the questions on the paper provided or with google docs
http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/tutorials/pev/main.html

Cells are classified by fundamental units of structure and by ?
Cells are classified as ?
The main difference between Autotrophs and heterotrophs is?
In humans, there are ____cells comprising ____kinds of tissues!
Name and describe 3 main Characteristics of prokaryotic cells.
What is a major threat to humans concerning Bacteria & antibiotics
What can be done to ensure an individual limits their chances of becoming immune to antibiotics?
Why should there be Sympathy for the life of bacteria? Provide 3 reasons to justify your answer
Describe the Basic structure of a eukaryotic cell in a few sentences
Name and describe the structure and function of the major cell organelles
Name and compare the Basic characteristics of viruses with bacteria
Can someone who is HIV positive be treated effectively? How ?
Quiz
1: What is alive?
Which of the following is not alive, but requires life to be able to reproduce?

A. Eubacteria
B. Fungae
C. Protozoa
D. Viruses

2: Organelles
Which statement best describes the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?

A. Specific transport and signaling systems
B. Synthesis and assembly of membrane and secreted proteins
C. Production of energy during photosynthesis
D. Processing of membrane and secreted proteins, including glycosylation

3: More Organelles
Which statement best describes the function of the Golgi apparatus?

A. Specific transport and signaling systems
B. Synthesis and assembly of membrane and secreted proteins
C. Production of energy during photosynthesis
D. Processing of membrane and secreted proteins, including glycosylation

4: Cystic fibrosis and membrane receptors
In some diseases like cystic fibrosis, a cell membrane receptor fails to function. In the majority of cases, the problem comes from a change in the receptor so that it cannot reach the cell surface. The site in the cell where membrane proteins are synthesized and assembled builds up with the abnormal protein. This site would likely be the:

A. nucleus
B. mitochondria
C. endoplasmic reticulum
D. lysosome

5: Organelle not in animal cells
The following organelle is found in prokaryotic cells but not eukaryotic cells of animal origin.

A. mitochondria
B. chloroplasts
C. nucleus
D. cell wall

6: Mitochondria and chloroplasts
Mitochondria and chloroplasts both:

A. function to provide the cell a source of energy.
B. are present in plants.
C. contain DNA.
D. all of the above

Sept 11 2014
QFD:All my life I thought air was free until I bought a bag of chips.
?FD: which is the most important organelle in the cell and why?
Learning and performance objective:HS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.
Quiz
1) QUIZ 100 points

1 Which of the following is a primary difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
A Prokaryotic cells contain a membrane–bound nucleus, eukaryotic cells do not.
B Prokaryotic cells contain DNA, eukaryotic cells do not.
C Eukaryotic cells contain a membrane–bound nucleus, prokaryotic cells do not.
D Eukaryotic cells contain DNA, prokaryotic cells do not.

cellpart2test
2 The characteristics of four different single–celled organisms are shown in the table above. Organism W and organism Z are BEST classified as __________.
A eukaryotes
B viruses
C producers
D prokaryotes

3 Euglena is a single–celled organism that has a nucleus, has membrane–bound organelles, and produces food through the process of photosynthesis. Euglena is BEST classified as a __________.
A prokaryote
B consumer
C herbivore
D eukaryote

4 You are a research scientist and you come across a specimen. In an attempt to classify the specimen you run a battery of tests and come up with the following observations: there is no cell membrane, genetic material is present but not in the form of a nucleus, there are no ribosomes present, and the specimen has a layer of protein on the outside.

Based on this information you determine that the specimen is a(n) __________.
A virus
B prokaryotic cell
C plant cell
D animal cell

5 Unlike the prokaryotes, eukaryotic DNA is contained within the __________.
A central vacuole
B nucleus
C peroxisome
D cytoplasm

6 Unlike the prokaryotes, eukaryotic DNA is contained within the __________.
A Only animal cells have membrane bound organelles.
B Only plant cells contain a cell membrane.
C Only animal cells contain a true nucleus.
D Only plant cells contain chloroplasts.

7 __________ cells have no real nucleus.
A Eukaryotic
B DNA
C Prokaryotic
D Plant cell
Use the diagram to answer the question(s).
cellpartstest
(Questions 8-9)
8 What type of cell is shown in the diagram of the cell?
A animal
B plant
C prokaryotic
D bacteria

9 What is number 14 shown in the diagram?
A cell wall
B endoplasmic reticulum
C cytoskeleton
D plasma membrane

10 Which cell structures are often found attached to the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum?
A ribosomes
B vesicles
C nuclei
D golgi apparatus

11 The rough endoplasmic reticulum delivers __________ to the Golgi apparatus, where they are modified, sorted and packaged.
A amino acids
B ribosomes
C lipids
D proteins

12 The __________ is responsible for protein translation, folding, and transport of proteins to be used in the cell membrane.
A endoplasmic reticulum
B lysosome
C vacuole
D nuclear envelope

13 Inside a eukaryotic cell, the specific organelle whose function emulates a “post office” mechanism where proteins are packaged, repackaged, and distributed according to their role in the organism is called the __________.
A nuclear envelope
B cytoplasm
C Golgi apparatus
D nucleolus

14 Mitochondria make __________ for cells by breaking down sugars into carbon dioxide.
A oxygen
B glucose
C water
D energy

15 If a cell displays a great amount of activity, one possible reason for this could be that it has large quantities of __________.
A contractile vacuoles
B cellulose cell walls
C chromosomes
D mitochondria

16 Plants use sunlight to make usable energy in the form of __________.
A sugars
B carbon dioxide
C water
D oxygen

17 Chloroplasts use __________ to make sugars from carbon dioxide.
A glucose
B ATP
C sunlight
D oxygen

18 Plants take in __________ from the environment and release __________ back into the environment.
A oxygen, nitrogen
B oxygen, carbon dioxide
C carbon dioxide, nitrogen
D carbon dioxide, oxygen

19 Which of the following is the correct chemical equation for photosynthesis?
A 6CO2 + C2H12O + light energy → 6h2O + 6O2
B 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + 6O2
C C6H12O6 + light energy → 6O26CO2 + 6H2O
D 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + light energy + 6O2

20 __________ is the process plants use to capture the sun’s energy and build carbohydrates that store energy.
A Cellular respiration
B Fermentation
C The citric acid cycle
D Photosynthesis


Sept 12 2014
QFD: Laughter is the best medicine but if you laugh for no reason, you need medicine.
?FD: What is cancer ? Describe what happens at the cellular level
Learning and performance objective:HS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.

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Responses

  1. Mr. Borden, , on our cells in real life thingy like make a town of parts of a cell, what words do we use again? or is it just a certain number of words plz get back to me asap!!!

    • All the words besides the first 4 , no cells, pro, euk, or viruses all other words should be used

      • They are in your notes, if you took them as requested by me

      • Yes meliea ,I know who you are lol make a giant poster that explains how a cell is like a ???? Just like the one u did with more detail , you can give the explanations next to each organelle , or try watching the videos I put on this site and make detailed comments regarding how this relates to what we are learning in class or to the real world … Hope that helps

  2. Have you graded my quiz? 🙂

    • They will be posted in the next 20 min

  3. […] all of the body systems including the major structures and functions of each 2 days 1) a and p quiz Sept 11 2015 QFD: remember those that fell on this terrible day in history Essential Question of […]

    • You saw th link for the quiz ..study the human systems quiz nit cells


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