Posted by: mrborden | September 1, 2014

Week 3 SPECIALIZED CELLS


Cellular differentiation
“Cell differentiation” redirects here. For the journal, see Cell Differentiation (journal).
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type. Differentiation occurs numerous times during the development of a multicellular organism as the organism changes from a simple zygote to a complex system of tissues and cell types. Differentiation continues in adulthood as adult stem cells divide and create fully differentiated daughter cells during tissue repair and during normal cell turnover. Differentiation dramatically changes a cell’s size, shape, membrane potential, metabolic activity, and responsiveness to signals. These changes are largely due to highly controlled modifications in gene expression. With a few exceptions, cellular differentiation almost never involves a change in the DNA sequence itself. Thus, different cells can have very different physical characteristics despite having the same genome.

A cell that can differentiate into all cell types of the adult organism is known as pluripotent. Such cells are called embryonic stem cells in animals and meristematic cells in higher plants. A cell that can differentiate into all cell types, including the placental tissue, is known as totipotent. In mammals, only the zygote and subsequent blastomeres are totipotent, while in plants many differentiated cells can become totipotent with simple laboratory techniques. In cytopathology, the level of cellular differentiation is used as a measure of cancer progression. “Grade” is a marker of how differentiated a cell in a tumor is.

Tues Sept 2

QFD:

The road to success is always under construction

?FD:

write a circle thinking map and place the word cell in it, then provide 10 words that relate to cells

TODAYS LEARNING OBJECTIVE: 

Learning objective: HS-LS1-1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells. 



1) presentation of csi findings
Wed Sept 3

QFD:

Love me or leave me. Hey,where is everybody going ?

?FD:

name the proper steps in a lab write up

TODAYS LEARNING OBJECTIVE: 

Learning objective: HS-LS1-1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells. 


HONORS link http://www.medicinenet.com/stem_cells/article.htm
1) article 1 stem cells
2) article 2 honey
Thurs Sept 4

QFD:

There is no fate, yes you’re dealt the cards but it’s up to you how you play your hand.

?FD:

name 3 types of specialized cells

TODAYS LEARNING OBJECTIVE: 

Learning objective: HS-LS1-1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells. 


Fri Sept 5

QFD:

There are many paths you take in life. Some you can choose, some are chosen for you.

?FD:

what can stem cells be used for?

TODAYS LEARNING OBJECTIVE: 

Learning objective: HS-LS1-1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells. 


What causes foodborne illnesses?
The majority of foodborne illnesses are caused by harmful bacteria and viruses.2 Some parasites and chemicals also cause foodborne illnesses.
Bacteria
Bacteria are tiny organisms that can cause infections of the GI tract. Not all bacteria are harmful to humans.
Some harmful bacteria may already be present in foods when they are purchased. Raw foods including meat, poultry, fish and shellfish, eggs, unpasteurized milk and dairy products, and fresh produce often contain bacteria that cause foodborne illnesses. Bacteria can contaminate food—making it harmful to eat—at any time during growth, harvesting or slaughter, processing, storage, and shipping.
Foods may also be contaminated with bacteria during food preparation in a restaurant or home kitchen. If food preparers do not thoroughly wash their hands, kitchen utensils, cutting boards, and other kitchen surfaces that come into contact with raw foods, cross-contamination—the spread of bacteria from contaminated food to uncontaminated food—may occur.
If hot food is not kept hot enough or cold food is not kept cold enough, bacteria may multiply. Bacteria multiply quickly when the temperature of food is between 40 and 140 degrees. Cold food should be kept below 40 degrees and hot food should be kept above 140 degrees. Bacteria multiply more slowly when food is refrigerated, and freezing food can further slow or even stop the spread of bacteria. However, bacteria in refrigerated or frozen foods become active again when food is brought to room temperature. Thoroughly cooking food kills bacteria.
Many types of bacteria cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include
Salmonella, a bacterium found in many foods, including raw and undercooked meat, poultry, dairy products, and seafood. Salmonella may also be present on egg shells and inside eggs.
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni), found in raw or undercooked chicken and unpasteurized milk.
Shigella, a bacterium spread from person to person. These bacteria are present in the stools of people who are infected. If people who are infected do not wash their hands thoroughly after using the bathroom, they can contaminate food that they handle or prepare. Water contaminated with infected stools can also contaminate produce in the field.
Escherichia coli (E. coli), which includes several different strains, only a few of which cause illness in humans. E. coli O157:H7 is the strain that causes the most severe illness. Common sources of E. coli include raw or undercooked hamburger, unpasteurized fruit juices and milk, and fresh produce.
Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), which has been found in raw and undercooked meats, unpasteurized milk, soft cheeses, and ready-to-eat deli meats and hot dogs.
Vibrio, a bacterium that may contaminate fish or shellfish.
Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum), a bacterium that may contaminate improperly canned foods and smoked and salted fish.

Squid video

In Sheldrake’s theory of morphic resonance, similar forms (morphs, or “fields of information”) reverberate and exchange information within a universal life force. “Natural systems, such as termite colonies, or pigeons, or orchid plants, or insulin molecules, inherit a collective memory from all previous things of their kind, however far away they were and however long ago they existed,” Sheldrake writes in his 1988 book, Presence of the Past (Park Street Press). “Things are as they are because they were as they were.” In this book and subsequent ones, Sheldrake, a botanist trained at the University of Cambridge, details the theory.

Morphic resonance, Sheldrake says, is “the idea of mysterious telepathy-type interconnections between organisms and of collective memories within species” and accounts for phantom limbs, how dogs know when their owners are coming home, and how people know when someone is staring at them. “Vision may involve a two-way process, an inward movement of light and an outward projection of mental images,” Sheldrake explains. Thousands of trials conducted by anyone who downloaded the experimental protocol from Sheldrake’s Web page “have given positive, repeatable, and highly significant results, implying that there is indeed a widespread sensitivity to being stared at from behind.”

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