Posted by: mrborden | May 25, 2014

Week 36 health and body systems


May 27
QFD: 2. “If the facts don’t fit the theory, change the facts.” – Albert Einstein
?fd: how does aids attack the body
Today’s learning objective: students will know and be able to explain how the body is affected by HIV and aids

HIV: Early Symptoms

The earliest symptoms of HIV can resemble the flu and they generally clear up within a month or two. These symptoms may include fever, headache, fatigue, and swelling in the lymph nodes, particularly those in the neck and groin. However, not everyone who acquires HIV will experience these symptoms. Similarly, for several years, perhaps as long as a decade, a person with HIV may not have any symptoms at all. During that time, though, the virus is still multiplying and it’s possible to transmit HIV to someone else.

HIV progresses differently for each person affected. The course of the disease is determined by the specific infections or complications a person with HIV develops. HIV complications can affect different parts of the body: Some are localized to the mouth, others in the brain, and others result in total body changes like losing body weight. Skin conditions are also common.

HIV: Skin Effects

Several of the main skin conditions that affect people with HIV are caused by viruses most people already have in their bodies. However, these viruses typically do not cause disease in people whose immune systems are healthy. Some of the more common dermatological, or skin, effects of HIV include:

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. VZV is a herpes virus that causes both chicken pox (varicella) and shingles (herpes zoster). Most adults have already been exposed to this virus. HIV-infected individuals may develop new skin sores from either of these diseases. HIV patients who didn’t have chicken pox earlier in their life may develop the condition, which in some cases can affect their organs and become life-threatening. Shingles can be localized to one area or it can spread over large areas of the skin. Shingles lesions can become infected and even lead to the development of encephalitis (brain inflammation) in people with HIV.
Herpes simplex virus (HSV). HSV was one of the first diseases identified in people with advanced HIV disease and is now considered one of the AIDS-defining diseases by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HSV causes open sores that may look like a cluster of blisters. They pop and crust over before healing completely; this process takes about 7 to 10 days in otherwise healthy individuals, but in people with advanced HIV disease, the sores may enlarge to 2 to 10 centimeters in diameter, becoming crusted and painful.
Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS). KS is a cancer caused by a herpes virus called Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus. Healthy individuals may be infected with Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus without developing the cancer. However, as HIV-infected people become sicker, KS may develop. KS tumors grow from cells that line blood vessels and lymph nodes. The cells form tumors on the skin that appear as brown, purple, or red splotches, called lesions. In some cases, the lesions look worse than they are, as they may cause no other symptoms. Other people with KS may experience painful swelling, particularly around the eyes, in the legs, or in the groin. Although less common, KS lesions can also form in organs, like the liver, digestive system, or the lungs, which could be deadly.
HIV: Oral Health Problems

HIV infection can also cause oral health problems that are rare in uninfected people, including:

Candidiasis. Candidiasis is a fungal infection that HIV patients often get as their CD4+ cell count decreases. One of the most common types associated with HIV, thrush (or pseudomembranous candidiasis), appears as white patches in the mouth or pharynx.
Periodontal disease. HIV-positive individuals very often have periodontal disease caused by bacterial infections even if they do not have any other symptoms of HIV. At first, the periodontal disease is characterized by the sudden and rapid loss of soft tissue and jaw bone. As the disease progresses, the person may also develop gingivitis with ulcers that leave crater-like crevices after healing.
Herpes simplex virus. HSV can also cause sores in and around the mouth. Typically, HSV-1 causes ulcers in the mouth and HSV-2 causes genital herpes. However, oral infection with HSV-2 and genital infection with HSV-1 can occur — this infection is usually spread during oral sex. The symptoms of both types are identical.
Kaposi’s sarcoma and shingles can also cause ulcers in the mouth. Kaposi’s sarcoma oral lesions are very similar to the skin lesions. Shingles lesions in the oral tissue may merge into large ulcers instead of crusting over as they do on the skin. Shingles oral ulcers often get into the gum tissue, causing tooth pain.

HIV: Neurological Effects

Although HIV does not appear to infect nerve cells, it does somehow affect their ability to function normally. People with HIV can experience:

AIDS-related dementia
A decrease in the ability to think properly and process information
Brain tumors that either begin in the brain or spread to the brain from elsewhere in the body
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), which is caused by a virus most people are already infected with, but does not cause disease in people with healthy immune systems. Symptoms include difficulty walking and talking, weakness in the limbs, and seizures.
Other neurological complications such as headaches, fever, nausea, and dizziness may occur as a result of HIV treatments.

HIV: Weight Effects and Wasting Syndrome

A big concern for people who have HIV that has progressed to AIDS is AIDS wasting syndrome, which is defined as any unintentional weight loss of 10 percent or more of your body weight. HIV patients may lose muscle as well as fat, and once lost, the weight is difficult to regain. The person may also have diarrhea and a slight fever. These symptoms are usually accompanied by a complete loss of appetite. AIDS wasting syndrome is extremely dangerous for HIV-infected people but it can largely be prevented by eating a healthy, nutrient-rich diet (including such foods as peanut butter, eggs, cheeses, and legumes) and regular exercise to maintain muscle mass.

While HIV infection can lead to a variety of very serious complications, advances in treatments have significantly improved the outlook for people with HIV infection. In fact, a study found that only about 10 percent of people with HIV die of one of the conditions that defines AIDS. Since HIV-infected individuals are now living longer, they are more likely to die from other causes.
May 28
QFD: “Great minds discuss ideas. Average minds discuss events. Small minds discuss people.” – Eleanor Roosevelt
?fd: name and describe 3 ways to reduce your chances of acquiring an std
Today’s learning objective: students will know and be able to explain how the body is affected by HIV and aids



Webquest
Reporter 1: What do doctors say about AIDS?

– The interview: you will ask a doctor about different ways of infection and prevention.

100 pts readability/presentation
100 pts information and answering questions
50 pts presentation
Students will become a reporter and create a brochure, poster, or power point about HIV
Students will pick one of the following and answer all questions below the Reporter #.
Resources:reporter 1
What do doctors say about HIV/AIDS
1)HIV & AIDS: Infection & Testing
2)Safer Sex: HIV & AIDS
3)Putting on a condom to prevent HIV ( or wrong ways)
4) HIV and pregnancy
5)“Children and AIDS are they neglected
Reporter 2: What should you know about drugs and AIDS?
1)Injecting drug users & HIV
2)HIV and other drug use
3) HIV Prevention for injecting drug use
4) Drug use and HIV facts (list at least 5)
5) AIDS Fact Sheet: Drug Use and HIV
6) Reducing the Risk of Getting HIV From Injection Drug Use
Reporter 3: What are the risks from promiscuous sex, tattoos/piercings
1) homosexual contracting HIV
2) heterosexual contracting HIV
3) Bisexuals contracting HIV
4) tattoos and HIV
5) piercing and HIV
6) steps to prevent or avoid contracting HIV
7 5 things you don’t know about HIV

– The interview: you will ask homosexuals and heterosexuals about ways of infection and problems inside these social groups.

– The article: you will write a short summary of the main facts to be taken into account from a homosexual and heterosexual point of view.

Resources:

Safer Sex: HIV & AIDS
“From 1981 until now”: affected AIDS population groups
AIDS homosexual discrimination
l Magic Johnson´s biography ( NBA basket-ball player )
Freddie Mercury´s biography (Queen´s leader singer)
Rock Hudson´s biography (Hollywood actor)
“Have you heard me today?”: Female vulnerability to HIV
Homosexuality, Gay Men, Lesbians & AIDS
HIV and AIDS stigma and Discrimination
Comments of people with AIDS
Reporter 4: What kind of help can be offered by AIDS associations and any

– The article: you will write about AIDS associations in the world and in your town area, (eg. “Asima, asociación anti- sida de Málaga), including information about humanitarian help and AIDS effects on families.
Part 2

After you have gathered and shared your info, you will organise an AIDS campaign at school. In the campaign, each group will prepare one activity among the following ones:
– a seminar, (you can begin with a brainstorming)
– a mural and a poster competition
– a TV advert
– a radio spot
– a video script
– a film-forum ( eg: Philadelphia, Al filo de la duda…)
– a role-play containing different attitudes

May 29
QFD: It wasn’t raining when Noah built the ark.” – Howard Ruff
?fd: name the 3 main parts of the circulatory system
Today’s learning objective: students will know and be able to create a concept map on the order of importance among the 11 body systems

May 30
QFD: Be not afraid of greatness. Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon ‘em.” – William Shakespeare
?fd: what body system is most important? Rank the next 4 body systems and their order of importance. Justify your answer
Today’s learning objective:students will know and be able to create a concept map on the order of importance among the 11 body systems

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