Posted by: mrborden | April 13, 2014

Week 30 Evolution


Hewlett-Packard
LS4.A: Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity

Genetic information provides evidence of evolution. DNA sequences vary among species, but there are many overlaps; in fact, the ongoing branching that produces multiple lines of descent can be inferred by comparing the DNA sequences of different organisms. Such information is also derivable from the similarities and differences in amino acids
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/speciation-i-allopatric-and-sympatric-speciation.html#lesson
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/evidence-for-evolution-paleontology-biogeography-embryology-comparative-anatomy-molecular-biology.html#lesson
April 14 2014
QFD: April prepares her green traffic light and the world thinks
?fd: what happens to species when the climate changes drastically?
Todays Learning Objective: HS-LS4-2.
Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment
HS-LS2-8.
Evaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and reproduce.

In summary, a species is an independent evolutionary unit of organisms. Members of a species either do or could mate with each other given the opportunity. In contrast, members of different species do not mate, or matings are unsuccessful in some way.
NOTES
Speciation is the process by which an ancestral species splits into two or more new species. For speciation to occur, a population’s gene pool must become divided. Typically, this isolation is caused by either a physical or biological barrier. Allopatric speciation is speciation that results when a population is separated by a physical barrier. It is also referred to as geographic speciation. Sympatric speciation is speciation that occurs without physical separation of members of the population.

Polyploidy is a characteristic of a cell or organism with more than two complete sets of chromosomes
The support for the theory of evolution is overwhelming. Many scientific fields contribute to the study and understanding of how populations change over time to meet the demands of their environments.

Paleontology tells us how species change through time by studying the fossil record. Biogeography tells us how species are distributed geographically, which helps us understand why similar environments do not always support the same species. Comparative anatomy allows us to visually compare the homology of organisms so that we can see how different environmental demands may have led to similar structures with different functions. And when organisms are very distantly related, we can use molecular biology to understand evolutionary change and homology on the molecular level.
Evolution is a long, long process. On average, it takes about 6.5 million years for a new species to develop from its ancestor. However, this is only an average, and evolution can occur rapidly (as little as 4,000 years) or very slowly (over 40 million years).

The fossil record provides us with a lot of information about how life has evolved on Earth. By looking at the order that fossils occur in the ground, we can create a timeline of evolutionary events. The fossil record is not complete though, and sometimes we see species evolving gradually, while other times they seem to appear out of nowhere.

These sudden appearances in the fossil record followed by little change are called punctuated equilibria because the fossil record is punctuated by the new species, but then it appears to remain in evolutionary equilibrium after showing up. One explanation for this phenomenon is that the fossil record is somewhat incomplete. Changes that occur over relatively short periods of time or that happen in small, isolated populations may simply go unrecorded in geologic history.

In addition to the fossil record, we can create molecular clocks for organisms. This technique compares the number of nucleotide differences against dates of evolutionary events. This is one way that we can estimate and fill in events that are missing from the fossil record, gaining a better understanding of the rate of evolutionary change for different species.

April 15 2014
QFD: Science has never drummed up quite as effective a tranquilizing agent as a sunny spring day. ~W. Earl Hall
?FD: How can genetic variation be affected by mutations? give an example
Todays Learning Objective HS-LS4-2.
Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment
HS-LS2-8.
Evaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and reproduce.

1) continue notes
2) webquest
April 16 2014
QFD: No winter lasts forever; no spring skips its turn. ~Hal Borland
?FD: How can genetic variation be affected bisexual reproduction? give an example
Todays Learning Objective HS-LS4-2.
Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment
HS-LS2-8.
Evaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and reproduce.
1) film Evolve Size

April 17 2014
QFD: The sun has come out… and the air is vivid with spring light. ~Byron Caldwell
?FD: Explain why we do not have polar bears living in the desert
Todays Learning Objective HS-LS4-2.
Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment
HS-LS2-8.
Evaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and reproduce.
April 18 2014
QFD: If spring betrays summer, would autumn never arrive? ~Terri Guillemets
?FD: Give an example of limited resources and a species that is competing for that resource in the desert
Todays Learning Objective HS-LS4-2.
Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment
HS-LS2-8.
Evaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and reproduce.
1) film

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