Posted by: mrborden | April 6, 2014

Week 29 Darwin and Natural Selection


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LS4.A: Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity

Genetic information provides evidence of evolution. DNA sequences vary among species, but there are many overlaps; in fact, the ongoing branching that produces multiple lines of descent can be inferred by comparing the DNA sequences of different organisms. Such information is also derivable from the similarities and differences in amino acids

April 7. 2014
Qfd: That which doesn’t kill us makes us stronger.” – Friedrich Nietzsche
?fd: what is natural selection?
Today’s learning objective: HS LS 4-1 Students who demonstrate understanding can:
Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence.

1) notes on natural selection
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/theory-of-evolution.html#lesson

April 8, 2014
Qfd: I haven’t failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work.” – Thomas Edison
?fd: explain the similarities between species and their amino acid chains
Today’s learning objective: HS LS 4-1 Students who demonstrate understanding can:
Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence.

1) notes on common ancestry

2011-01-04-11-22-06-6-human-beings-and-chimpanzees-evolved-from-a-common
2) article T-rex was a chicken
http://youtu.be/h3Lkac890c0

April 9, 2014
Qfd: Never leave that till tomorrow which you can do today.” – Benjamin Franklin
?fd provide 3 forms of evidence concerning common ancestry
Today’s learning objective: HS LS 4-1 students who demonstrate understanding can:
Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence. and sequences and from anatomical and embryological evidence.
1) quiz
1) The spotted touch-me-not, a flowering plant, has seed pods that burst open when touched and forcefully eject their seeds. Such an adaptation is favorable because it
1. aids in the dispersal of the species.
2. attracts insects that aid in pollination.
3. prevents germination within the seed pod.
4. can cause genetic changes to occur.
2) The diagram below illustrates the change that occurred in the frequency of phenotypes in an insect population over 10 generations. A probable explanation for this change would be that over time there was
1. a decrease in the adaptive value of gene a
2. an increase in the adaptive value of gene a
3. an increase in the population of this insect
4. a decrease in the mutation rate of gene A

3) According to Darwin’s theory of evolution, differences between species may be the result of
1. the disuse of body structures
2. the transmission of acquired characteristics
3. natural selection
4. mutagenic agents

4) Two nucleotide sequences found in two different species are almost exactly the same. This suggests that these species
1. are evolving into the same species
2. contain identical DNA
3. may have similar evolutionary histories
4. have the same number of mutations

5) The diagram below shows undisturbed sedimentary strata at the bottom of an ocean. The fossils found in layer B resemble the fossils found in layer A. This similarity suggests that
1. the fossils in layer B were formed before the fossils in layer A
2. modern forms of life may have evolved from earlier forms of life
3. vertebrate fossils are only found in sediments
4. the fossils in layer A must be more complex than those in layer B

6) The theory that evolutionary change is slow and continuous is known as
1. punctuated equilibrium
2. geographic isolation
3. speciation
4. gradualism

7) The concept that species have changed over long periods of time is known as
1. ecology
2. embryology
3. spontaneous generation
4. organic evolution

8) The study of homologous structures in mature organisms provides evidence for the evolutionary relationships among certain groups of organisms. Which field of study includes this evidence of evolution?
1. comparative cytology
2. biochemistry
3. geology
4. comparative anatomy

9) The diagram below represents a section of undisturbed layers of sedimentary rock in New York State and shows the location of fossils of several closely related species. According to currently accepted evolutionary theory, which is the most probable assumption about species A, B, and C?
1. Species B is more abundant than species C.
2. Species C existed before species B.
3. Species A and B are genetically identical.
4. Species B descended from species A.

10) Which group of organisms is believed to be among the earliest to evolve on Earth?
1. arthropods
2. coelenterates
3. protozoans
4. reptiles

11) Which concept was not included in Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection?
1. survival of the fittest
2. struggle for existence
3. overproduction of offspring
4. punctuated equilibrium

12) According to the heterotroph hypothesis, the first life on Earth was able to
1. synthesize its food from inorganic compounds
2. feed upon carbohydrates produced by autotrophs
3. feed upon available nutrients in the environment
4. carry on photosynthesis instead of respiration

13) Darwin’s theory of evolution is based on the concept of
1. use and disuse
2. mutations
3. natural selection
4. hybridization

14) The biochemical analysis of different chlorophyll pigments in plants would be most useful in determining
1. how plants reproduce asexually
2. how plants pass favorable traits to their offspring
3. why some plants produce hemoglobin
4. which plants might have a common ancestor

15) The structural similarities between the flippers of whales and the arms of humans are used to show that the
1. human species began life in the oceans
2. human species and whales have a common ancestry
3. whales are older than the human species
4. whales evolved from the human species
16) When populations remain genetically stable over time
1) Gradualism
2) punctuated equilibrium
3) Divergent evolution
4) adaptive radiation
17) Evolution from a common ancestor
1) Gradualism
2) punctuated equilibrium
3) Divergent evolution
4) adaptive radiiation
18) isolated populations of species that develop independently
1) Gradualism
2) punctuated equilibrium
3) Divergent evolution
4) adaptive radiation

19) New species evolve over time as the genomes from 2 different species
1) Gradualism
2) punctuated equilibrium
3) Divergent evolution
4) adaptive radiiation

20) How many babies do male seahorses lay?
1) 1200
2)1800
3) 2000
4) 2200

April 10, 2014
Video of a student in my class during protein synthesis

Qfd: If opportunity doesn’t knock, build a door.” – Milton Berle
?fd: what is empirical a evidence? Give an example
Today’s learning objective: HS LS 4-1 students who demonstrate understanding can:
Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence.

3) web quest on natural selection
http://www.pleasanton.k12.ca.us/avhsweb/ogle/Biology/notes/WebQuestEvolutionandNatural.htm
Periods 2 and 4 will do a lesson on genetics – please behave!
April 10 2014 (per 2 and 4)
Qfd: If opportunity doesn’t knock, build a door.” – Milton Berle
?fd: what is empirical a evidence? Give an example
Learning target: Students will apply concepts of statistics and probability to predict the change in genetics over a period of time and create a simulated baby supported by mathematical justifications
Essential Question: (homework) What future implications does genetics have on society? give examples in a paragraph
Standards: MATH G.S.MD 6 use of probabilities to make fair decisions
G.S. MD 7 Analyze decisions and strategies using probability concepts
SCIENCE</strong>
3-LS3-1.
Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence that plants and animals have traits inherited from parents and that variation of these traits exists in a group of similar organisms

Lab and directions
1) working with a partner, determine the genotype (letters) of the baby by flipping pennies and nickels.
2) one of you is mom and the other is dad (moms will flip the penny while dads will flip the other coin, nickel/dime) to choose the alleles
3) record the alleles, genotype, and phenotype (what is expressed) in the table provided
4) Take the information from the first table and sort them into Dominant and recessive alleles on pg3
5) Answer the questions on pg 4 : What information can be gathered from the table? WHy is a coin flip used to represent the selection of alleles? Which of Mendel’s laws does that represent? law of segregation or independent assortment? Compare your results to your original predictions. Does the data support your hypothesis/prediction? Why or Why not?
pg1babylab 001
pg2babylab 001
pg3 abylab 001
pg 4babylab 001
April 11, 2014
qfd: All our dreams can come true – if we have the courage to pursue them.” – Walt Disney
?fd:
Today’s learning objective: HS LS 4-1 Students who demonstrate understanding can:
Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence.
1) second half of movie , what Darwin never knew

Evidence of common descent of living things has been discovered by scientists working in a variety of fields over many years. This evidence has demonstrated and verified the occurrence of evolution and provided a wealth of information on the natural processes by which the variety and diversity of life on Earth developed. This evidence supports the modern evolutionary synthesis, the current scientific theory that explains how and why life changes over time. Evolutionary biologists document evidence of common descent: making testable predictions, testing hypotheses, and developing theories that illustrate and describe its causes.

Comparison of the DNA genetic sequences of organisms has revealed that organisms that are phylogenetically close have a higher degree of DNA sequence similarity than organisms that are phylogenetically distant. Further evidence for common descent comes from genetic detritus such as pseudogenes, regions of DNA that are orthologous to a gene in a related organism, but are no longer active and appear to be undergoing a steady process of degeneration from cumulative mutations.

Fossils are important for estimating when various lineages developed in geologic time. As fossilization is an uncommon occurrence, usually requiring hard body parts and death near a site where sediments are being deposited, the fossil record only provides sparse and intermittent information about the evolution of life. Evidence of organisms prior to the development of hard body parts such as shells, bones and teeth is especially scarce, but exists in the form of ancient microfossils, as well as impressions of various soft-bodied organisms. The comparative study of the anatomy of groups of animals shows structural features that are fundamentally similar or homologous, demonstrating phylogenetic and ancestral relationships with other organisms, most especially when compared with fossils of ancient extinct organisms. Vestigial structures and comparisons in embryonic development are largely a contributing factor in anatomical resemblance in concordance with common descent. Since metabolic processes do not leave fossils, research into the evolution of the basic cellular processes is done largely by comparison of existing organisms’ physiology and biochemistry. Many lineages diverged at different stages of development, so it is possible to determine when certain metabolic processes appeared by comparing the traits of the descendants of a common ancestor. Universal biochemical organization and molecular variance patterns in all organisms also show a direct correlation with common descent.

Further evidence comes from the field of biogeography because evolution with common descent provides the best and most thorough explanation for a variety of facts concerning the geographical distribution of plants and animals across the world. This is especially obvious in the field of island biogeography. Combined with the theory of plate tectonics common descent provides a way to combine facts about the current distribution of species with evidence from the fossil record to provide a logically consistent explanation of how the distribution of living organisms has changed over time.

The development and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria, like the spread of pesticide resistant forms of plants and insects provides evidence that evolution due to natural selection is an ongoing process in the natural world. Alongside this, are observed instances of the separation of populations of species into sets of new species (speciation). Speciation has been observed directly and indirectly in the lab and in nature. Multiple forms of such have been described and documented as examples for individual modes of speciation. Furthermore, evidence of common descent extends from direct laboratory experimentation with the artificial selection of organisms—historically and currently—and other controlled experiments involving many of the topics in the article. This article explains the different types of evidence for evolution with common descent along with many specialized examples of each.

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Responses

  1. borden if we cant get our 15 second video on the power point can we put one on from youtube

    • That’s cool no problem


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