Posted by: mrborden | May 5, 2013

Week 33 Biology (cell)

May 13-May 15
Draw and label pg 90 from the green book on the left half of white sheet of paper and then copy the 3 main activities of each phase on the right side. On the back of the paper or on a separate sheet (100 points), define all of the words from pg 97 (green book) (100 points)
Mitosis is the process by which a eukaryotic cell separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two identical sets, in two separate nuclei. It is generally followed immediately by cytokinesis, which divides the nuclei, cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle—the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to their parent cell. This accounts for approximately 10% of the cell cycle.

Mitosis occurs only in eukaryotic cells and the process varies in different species. For example, animals undergo an “open” mitosis, where the nuclear envelope breaks down before the chromosomes separate, while fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) undergo a “closed” mitosis, where chromosomes divide within an intact cell nucleus.[1] Prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, divide by a process called binary fission.

The process of mitosis is fast and highly complex. The sequence of events is divided into stages corresponding to the completion of one set of activities and the start of the next. These stages are prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. During mitosis the pairs of chromatids condense and attach to fibers that pull the sister chromatids to opposite sides of the cell. The cell then divides in cytokinesis, to produce two identical daughter cells which are still diploid cells.[2]

Because cytokinesis usually occurs in conjunction with mitosis, “mitosis” is often used interchangeably with “mitotic phase”. However, there are many cells where mitosis and cytokinesis occur separately, forming single cells with multiple nuclei. This occurs most notably among the fungi and slime moulds, but is found in various groups. Even in animals, cytokinesis and mitosis may occur independently, for instance during certain stages of fruit fly embryonic development.[3] Errors in mitosis can either kill a cell through apoptosis or cause mutations that may lead to certain types of cancer.

May 7-11
You will create a booklet describing the parts of a cell and include pictures, a definition, and an analogy of the following parts of the cell
Front cover – Only write your Name and the words Parts of the Cell otherwise you will not be able to use them next year also
1) Page 1 and 2 Animal and Plant cell
2) Pg 3 Nucleus, Nucleolus, and Chromosomes 1 picture from pg 75 in green book
3) Pg 4 Endoplasmic reticulum and Ribosome’s 1 picture from pg 77
4) Pg 5 Mitochondria and Chloroplasts 2 pictures from pgs 78 and 80
5) pg 6 Lysosome and vacuoles 2 pictures from pgs 79 (fig 3-12) and Pg 80 (fig 3-13)
6)On the back cover draw the picture of Diffusion and Osmosis from Pg 85 and describe both
The definitions have been given to you and the analogies are the green lettered words next to the cell part
(Due by the beginning of the period on Monday May 7)

May 6 2013
QFD: They cannot take away our self-respect if we do not give it to them. ~Mahatma Gandhi
?FD: Name 3 parts of a Cell? what is different between and animal and a plant cell?
Objective : 1c. Students know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals), and viruses differ in complexity and general structure.
1) Draw, Color, and label the Animal and Plant cell pg 73 + 74 in green book

Parts of a cell: Parts of a cell: nucleus, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, mitochondria, chloroplasts, vacuoles, and vesicles

Lesson Summary
Let’s summarize the similarities and differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes_. Both organisms are composed of cells, the basic unit of life, with each cell surrounded by a cell membrane. The biggest difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is that eukaryotes have a nucleus. They also have other membrane structures called organelles. Organelles are structures such as the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria. The DNA in prokaryotes exists in a space called the nucleoid, and it is circular DNA, while eukaryotes have linear DNA, and it’s organized into a higher-order structure.

Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes have ribosomes. Ribosomes are not a membrane-bound organelle, but in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, they are used for translation of RNA into proteins. Eukaryotes and prokaryotes can both perform transport, DNA replication, transcription, translation, and movement. It is important to note, however, that although they share these similar processes, many are carried out within organelles in eukaryotes or use different proteins. For example, flagella and the cytoskeleton may be structured differently in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but they have the same functions of movement and providing cell structure, respectively.


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