Posted by: mrborden | April 7, 2013

Week 29 CST Review 1


April 12 2013
QFD:Men are probably nearer the central truth in their superstitions than in their science. ~Henry David Thoreau
?FD: describe the lifecycle of a medium size star
Objective: Students will retain knowledge demonstrated this year on all of the California Earth Science Standards and perform at a level of proficient or better on the state exam and final exam.



Describe how big our sun is compared to the biggest star shown in this video, in a paragraph


Lifecycle of stars
1) How many stars are there in our galaxy?
2) What is the actual name for a stellar nursery?
3) What are the 3 lightest elements ?
4) What university is clifford Johnson a professor at?
5) Does the hydrogen gas start out hot or cold?
6) The heat rise to _______ million degrees
7) Hydrogen atoms fuse to form ____ atoms during nuclear __________
8) How does gravity act on a star? on Earth?
9) What do all main sequence stars have in common? How are they different?
10) what are the most common color of stars?
Describe the lifecycle of a sun like star in a paragraph

black hole questions
1) what is a black hole?
2) Where are the subaru observatory that detected the black hole?
3) What happened 13 billion years ago, what was a formed?
4) what telescope viewed thos event?
5) what is a quasar?
6) what is OJ287?
7) The Chandra X ray observatory photographed the largest black hole that was _______ solar masses
8) what is a acretion disc?
9) What local galaxy has formed a black hole?
10) what sits in the middle of the milky way galaxy approximately 28 million light years away?

April 11 2013
QFD: The greatest oak was once a little nut who held its ground.
?FD: Name the 3 type of rocks and give an example of each
Objective: Students will retain knowledge demonstrated this year on all of the California Earth Science Standards and perform at a level of proficient or better on the state exam and final exam.
1) Notes on Ca. Geology and standard 2
standard2all 001
9. The geology of California underlies the state’s wealth of natural resources as well as its natural hazards. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know the resources of major economic importance in California and their relation to California’s geology.
b. Students know the principal natural hazards in different California regions and the geologic basis of those hazards.
c. Students know the importance of water to society, the origins of California’s fresh water, and the relationship between supply and need.
2. Earth-based and space-based astronomy reveal the structure, scale, and changes in stars, galaxies, and the universe over time. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know the solar system is located in an outer edge of the disc-shaped Milky Way galaxy, which spans 100,000 light years.
b. Students know galaxies are made of billions of stars and comprise most of the visible mass of the universe.
c. Students know the evidence indicating that all elements with an atomic number greater than that of lithium have been formed by nuclear fusion in stars.
d. Students know that stars differ in their life cycles and that visual, radio, and X-ray telescopes may be used to collect data that reveal those differences.
Milky Way Galaxy – (739) Is a spiral galaxy that spans 100,000 light years across and Earth/Sun is located approximately 4/5 from the galactic bulge which is a massive Black hole.
Types of galaxies – Spiral which looks like a pinwheel and spins, elipitical galaxy, looks like a flattened ball billions of new stars mainly hydrogen and helium, Irregular galaxy, has no definite shape usually an older galaxy that loses gravitational attraction and form
Big Bang Theory – The universe was formed between 10-15 billion years ago (13.7BYA) from a single point due to an enormous explosion and has been expanding rapidly, Red shift shows 99% of the universe is expanding with less than 1% of objects blue shifting or coming towards the center.
Our solar System (milky way galaxy) is approximately 4.6 Billion years old and was formed from a cloud of dust and gas made up of Hydrogen and Helium.
2) Film clip on sizes of stars
3)Draw the Hr diagram (size, temperature and brightness) quick draw!

http://www.metacafe.com/fplayer/yt-JEKXCfB9fds/the_relative_size_of_stars_planets_pluto.swf

Nebula – birthplace of stars composed mainly of hydrogen and helium
Star systems – Most stars are members of groups (Binary) = 2 or more stars called star systems, Our sun is rare to be a single star.
protostar – is the first stage of a stars life due to contracting gas and dust which becomes so hot nuclear fusion can begin which starts fusing Hydrogen atoms into helium atoms.
main sequence stars , 90% of all stars are in the main sequence or become Red giants, Super Giants, White dwarfs, black dwarfs and then collapse, due to gravity, and sometimes if above 15ANG, become black holes
Our sun will become a red giant in approximately 4 billion years, when it loses its hydrogen, and has all helium it will collapse and become a white dwarf until it has no more energy and then becomes a black dwarf or a dead star
Stars Life – depends on its mass, the bigger or more massive the star, the shorter its life.
Neutron stars – explode in a supernova but do not become black holes.
Absolute Magnitude – is the brightness of a star if it were a standard distance from earth. Very hard to calculate (728)
Apparent Magnitude – is its brightness as seen from earth, easier to calculate. (727)
Star Sizes (726) Supergiant; giant.medium size (sun)>white dwarf>neutron star
Temperatures of stars Hottest Blue, white yellow, orange, red (cool)
Parallax – apparent change in position of a star from different places (725) July 1st and Jan 1st to plot the actual distance to a star, because earth rotates around the sun

April 10 2013
QFD: Fall seven times, stand up eight. ~Japanese Proverb??FD : what was the hardest standard to understand on the test
Objective: Students will retain knowledge demonstrated this year on all of the California Earth Science Standards and perform at a level of proficient or better on the state exam and final exam.
1) test review
April 9 2013
QFD: There is no telling how many miles you will have to run while chasing a dream. ~Author Unknown
?FD: Describe the 2 types of volcanic eruptions and their silica content
Objective: Students will retain knowledge demonstrated this year on all of the California Earth Science Standards and perform at a level of proficient or better on the state exam and final exam.
1) finish notes
2) Test standard 3
1 Which of the following is a reason why the ocean floor is said to be relatively new?

A The rate of sea floor spreading is rapid enough to recycle the ocean floor in a 200 million year cycle.

B The ocean floor only appeared about 180 million years ago.

C The ocean floor was only discovered relatively recently.

D The rate of sea floor spreading is rapid enough to recycle the ocean floor in a 4 billion year cycle.

2 What is one way that mid–ocean ridges provide evidence of sea floor spreading?

A Rocks at the crest of the ridge are young; rocks found further from the crest are older.

B Rocks all along the ridges are a consistent age.

C Rocks at the crest of the ridge are old; rocks found further from the crest are younger.

D Rocks at the crest of the ridge are much hotter than rocks found elsewhere.

3 Seafloor spreading is the process by which plate tectonics

A produce new oceanic lithosphere.

B save old oceanic lithosphere.

C spread at convergent plate boundaries.

D spread at a subduction zone.

4 With the sediment from ocean drilling, scientists found that the youngest oceanic crust is located at __________.

A continental margins 
C bottom of oceanic trenches

B ridge crests 
D subduction zones

5 The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is __________ at a rate of about 2.5cm per year.

A converging 
C spreading

B creating submarine canyons 
D creating hot spots

6 The chain of Hawaiian islands is evidence which supports the idea that oceanic plates move along the Earth’s surface.

From the passage above, what was responsible for the creation of the Hawaiian islands?

A slab-pull 
B ridge-push 
C seamounts 
D hot spot

7 Which of the following would take place along the crest of the mid ocean ridge?

A dormant volcanic activity 
C seafloor spreading

B marine mammal migration patterns 
D cold dense seawater

8 All of the following provide evidence for the theory of plate tectonics EXCEPT

A characteristics of living organisms on the seafloor.

B patterns of magnetic fields on the seafloor.

C the relatively young age of the seafloor.

D topographical features on the seafloor.

9 At the Mid–Atlantic Ridge, plates are moving __________.

A away from each other 
C beneath each other

B towards each other 
D along side each other

10 A tectonic plate boundary that occurs when two plates move together and collide into each other is called a __________.

A convergent boundary 
C divergent boundary

B transform fault boundary 
D major plate

11 What type of zone occurs when one oceanic plate is forced down into the mantle beneath a second plate?

A plummeting 
B submersion 
C subduction 
D inferior

12 Which of the following would be considered a convergent boundary?

A two oceanic plates spreading away from each other

B an oceanic lithosphere diving beneath another plate

C a continental plate spreading away from another continental plate

D a continental plate grinding along side another continental plate

13 Which type of plate boundary would create a rift valley?

A divergent 
B convergent 
C transform 
D uniform

14 Which of the following would be considered a transform fault boundary?

A Himalayan Mountains 
C Mount St. Helens

B East African Rift Valley 
D San Andreas Fault

15 Where would most divergent plate boundaries be located?

A along two continental plates grinding along side each other 
C at plate margins where oceanic crust is being pushed downward into the mantle

B along the crests of oceanic ridges 
D where oceanic crust meets continental crust

16 When two continental plates converge together, what type of geographic formation will be the result?

A rift valleys 
B island arcs 
C trenches 
D folded mountains

17 A tectonic plate boundary that occurs when two plates grind past each other without the production or destruction of lithosphere is a __________.

A convergent boundary 
C divergent boundary

B transform fault boundary 
D major plate

18 The Aleutian islands off the shore of Alaska are an arc-shaped chain of small volcanic islands called a volcanic island arc. Which type of convergent boundary process formed these islands?

A oceanic-continental 
C continental-continental

B oceanic-oceanic 
D seafloor spreading

19 A tectonic plate boundary that occurs when two plates move apart is called a __________.

A convergent boundary 
C divergent boundary

B transform fault boundary 
D major plate

20 A piece of rock is found to be less dense than water. Analysis of the rock shows that it has small holes throughout it, likely the result of the rapid escape of gases from the source of the rock. What type of rock is this most likely to be?

A sedimentary 
B igneous 
C metamorphic 
D crystalline

21 Rocks at the earth’s surface are continually broken down, compacted, and cemented together. What is the name of the resultant type of rock?

A igneous 
B metamorphic 
C lava 
D sedimentary

22 A rock is observed to have fossil impressions of plants preserved in it. This rock is most likely a(n) __________ rock.

A extrusive igneous 
B intrusive igneous 
C metamorphic 
D sedimentary

23 Granite is an igneous rock with large crystals. It most likely forms by

A the cementing of sediments underground. 
C the cooling of magma underground.

B the compression of rock in mountain building. 
D the cooling of lava above ground.

24 A rock is observed to be very dense with alternating, parallel bands of light and dark crystals. This rock is most likely a __________ rock.

A extrusive igneous 
B intrusive igneous 
C metamorphic 
D sedimentary

25 Metamorphic rock is made by which one of the following dynamic processes?

A compaction and cementing of sediments

B subjection of rocks to heat and pressure

C cooling of magma

D exposure of rocks to wind and rain

26 Which type of rock might easily be broken down into smaller sediments?

A obsidian 
B limestone 
C pumice 
D granite

27 Which type of rock occurs when magma cools and hardens beneath the surface?

A metamorphic 
B sedimentary 
C igneous 
D limestone

28 Which of the following are the three major types of rocks?

A metamorphic, intrusive, extrusive

B sedimentary, metamorphic, granite

C igneous, metamorphic, pumice

D igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary

29 Igneous rocks usually __________.

A can be scratched with a penny

B are composed of silicate materials

C contain primarily evaporates

D normally contain fossils

30 The __________ of an earthquake is a quantitative measurement of the amount of energy released at the source of the earthquake.

A intensity 
B magnitude 
C Richter scale 
D epicenter

31 The __________ of an earthquake is a qualitative measurement of the amount of DAMAGE caused by the earthquake.

A Richter scale 
B magnitude 
C intensity 
D epicenter

32 How many types of seismic waves does a seismogram illustrate?

A 1 
B 3 
C 4 
D 10

33 What is happening when an earthquake occurs on a convergent plate boundary?

A two plates are colliding together

B two plates are dividing apart

C two plates are grinding past each other in a side-by-side motion

D two plates move together to form a mid-ocean ridge

34 When reading a seismogram, which are the first waves to arrive?

A S waves 
B surface waves 
C P waves 
D foreshocks

35 The place within Earth’s crust where the earthquake originated is called the __________.

A epicenter 
B fault 
C fracture 
D focus

36 The epicenter of an earthquake is located __________.

A at the same depth of the focus 
C directly under the focus

B directly above the focus 
D beneath the earth’s crust

37 What sort of terrain is a violent eruption of lava likely to create?

A gentle sloping hills 
B sudden, steep hills 
C flat plains 
D mountains

38 What sort of terrain is most likely to be the result of a voluminous lava flow?

A flat plains 
B steep slopes 
C gentle slopes 
D new mountains

39 What are the primary factors that determine whether a volcano will have a violent or quiet eruption?

A magma composition 
C pressure and temperature of gases within the volcano

B magma temperature 
D All of the above

40 The two main differences between a composite volcano and a shield volcano are their_____________.

A lava type and height 
C eruption frequency and height

B lava type and shape 
D eruption frequency and shape

41 During an explosive eruption, which provides the force to push molten rock out of the volcano’s vent?

A dissolved gases 
C a build-up of ash

B pools of water 
D a low silica content high

42 The best explanation for the formation of the Hawaiian Islands is that they are the result of a __________.

A convergent boundary 
C transform boundary

B divergent boundary 
D hot spot in the Earth’s mantle

43 The location of volcanoes is related to __________.

A geography of the land 
C plate boundaries

B earthquake activity 
D cracks in the Earth’s crust

44 Yellowstone National Park contains the Yellowstone Caldera, a large volcano. This volcano is located in the middle of a continental plate, and not at a plate boundary, because of this it was MOST likely formed by

A hotspot activity.

B asteroid impact.

C transform faulting.

D subduction.

45 The volcanoes encircling the Pacific basin are known as __________.

A the circle of volcanoes 
C the volcano loop

B the disk of fire 
D the ring of fire

April 8 2013
QFD: People often say that motivation doesn’t last. Well, neither does bathing – that’s why we recommend it daily. ~Zig Ziglar
?FD: Name the 3 types of plate boundaries and describe the features they create
Objective: Students will retain knowledge demonstrated this year on all of the California Earth Science Standards and perform at a level of proficient or better on the state exam and final exam.
1) review of CA ESS 3 and 9
2) check on projects
HW: study todays notes for test tomorrow
a) sea floor spreading http://library.thinkquest.org/17457/platetectonics/4.php
b) plate tectonics http://library.thinkquest.org/17701/high/tectonics/
c) rock cycle http://www.learner.org/interactives/rockcycle/
d) Earthquakes http://www.geo.mtu.edu/UPSeis/intensity.htmlE/F) Volcanic eruptions http://geology.com/volcanoes/types-of-volcanic-eruptions/Standard 9 Ca geology
A) resources http://ceres.ca.gov/natural_resources/
B) Water http://www.water.ca.gov
C) Hazards http://www.conservation.ca.gov/cgs/hazards/Pages/index.aspx

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