Posted by: mrborden | April 6, 2012

CST and Final Review Week 2

Tuesday April 16
Final Exam Part 1 + Part 2
Final Exam
Final Exam Part 1

1 Which of the following planets is a terrestrial planet?
A Earth B Jupiter C Saturn D Neptune

Which of the following is the name for a cloud of dust and gas in space?
A moon B nebula C eclipse D lunar regolith

A nebula consists of 92 percent of which element?
A helium B hydrogen C nitrogen D carbon

4 Why do scientists refer to Venus as Earth’s “twin”?
A similar gravitational pressure
B similar amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
C similar atmosphere
D similar size and age

It is widely accepted that the Earth, as one of the bodies of our solar system, came from a rotating cloud. What was this cloud most likely made of?
A nitrogen and helium C sulfur and granite
B hydrogen and oxygen D helium and hydrogen

Of the following choices, which BEST provides scientists with a reliable age of the solar system?
A terrestrial material from planets other than Earth
B earth volcanic rock
C fragments of asteroids known as meteorites
D metamorphic Earth rock

Why are rock samples from the moon helpful in determining the relative age of the solar system?
A because moon rocks have not gone through changes caused by tectonic activity
B because moon rocks have gone through changes caused by tectonic activity
C because moon rocks came from a distant solar system
D because moon rocks by their nature change over time

Why are meteorites good sources of information concerning the age of the solar system?
A because they are from Earth’s volcanic activity
B because they have gone through many changes along their journey to the Earth
C because they are good samples of material from distant solar systems
D because they are material that is relatively unchanged since the beginning of the solar system

The evidence obtained from Earth and from moon rocks indicate the solar system __________.
A was formed about 4 million years ago
B was formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas
C was made entirely of gaseous planets
D was split into two different systems

Which law states that in a sequence of undisturbed rock layers, the oldest layer is on the bottom and the upper layers are progressively younger?
A superposition B layering C denomination D correlation

What is the geological time scale used for?
A random placement of prehistoric fossils
B disarray of natural disasters
C sequence of geological events in Earth’s history
D random placement of sedimentary rocks

Astronomers know planets are closer to Earth than stars by __________.
A observing the movements of planets
B observing the surfaces of the sun and planets
C observing the orbits of comets
D observing a star’s motion

Which of the following is the most basic way astronomers can measure a star’s distance from Earth?
A parallax B metric units C spiral shifting D gas measurements

A major difference in the apparent position of stars and planets in the night sky is that __________.
A stars appear to stay in fixed positions
B stars appear closer than planets
C stars appear to be in motion
D planets appear to stay in fixed positions

Which type of nuclear reaction is a source of energy that powers the Sun?
A photosynthesis B respiration C fusion D endothermic

Which of the following BEST describes the sun, compared with other stars in the universe?
A The sun is very large compared to other stars and is powered by nuclear fusion reactions.
B The sun is very small compared to other stars and is powered by nuclear fusion reactions.
C The sun has an average size compared to other stars and is powered by nuclear fusion reactions.
D The sun has an average size compared to other stars and is powered by nuclear fission reactions.

When our sun is compared to other stars, it is considered to be __________.
A an average star C a more complex star
B a below average star D much larger than other stars

Our sun is powered by __________.
A volcanic explosions C nuclear reactions
B oxygen and carbon dioxide D solar reactants

What is widely accepted by the scientific community as the cause of the largest biological extinction in Earth history?
A a world-wide flood 3,000 years ago
B a large asteroid impact 251 million years ago
C a large asteroid impact 1,000 years ago
D a volcanic eruption 251 million years ago

Which of the following is compelling evidence for scientists that asteroids have caused cataclysmic collisions with the Earth?
A the recurrence of comets in our solar system
B the amount of impact craters on the Moon
C the fact that asteroids exist in our solar system at all
D the discovery of many impact sites on the Earth’s surface

Asteroids in our solar system are located mainly in what region?
A between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
B between the orbits of Pluto and Uranus
C just beyond the orbit of our own moon
D They are scattered randomly throughout our solar system.

Which of the following is the most obvious feature astronomers can see on the moon?
A craters B lunar debris C lunar canyons D lunar planes

To study certain rays, NASA uses the __________ Observatory for evidence of black holes where gravity is so strong, visible light cannot escape.
A Gamma X-Ray B Chandra X-Ray C Orion P-Ray D Hubble Z-Ray

Planets orbiting stars are studied by measuring the changes that the Doppler shift produces in a star’s emission spectrum. The majority of them are thought to be which types of planet?
A terrestrial planets C planets similar to Mercury
B gas planets D planets similar to Mars

With observing other solar systems, they might have a slightly warped disk shape. What evidence does a slightly warped disk shape solar system give astronomers?
A solar radiation within other solar systems spreading out in different directions
B gamma rays bend light around our solar system
C gravitational influence of planets orbiting around a star
D solar radiation is too high in other solar systems for life to begin
In which galaxy is our solar system located?
A Andromeda B Triangulum C Milky Way D Ursa Major Dwarf

Earth is located on the outer edge of the disc–shaped __________ galaxy.
A Orion B Big Dipper C Milky Way D Solar System

Why is it hard for scientists to study the Milky Way galaxy with telescopes?
A the light from other galaxies blocks their view
B large comets circling the solar system leave behind bright particles
C the sun is too large and bright
D large quantities of interstellar matter block their vision

What type of telescope would be the best choice for determining the structure of our galaxy?
A heat telescope B radio telescope C lunar telescope D micro telescope

Use the information below to answer the following questions.
This image represents the galaxy where our Solar System is located.
(Questions 30-31)

Which of these is the MOST likely location for our Solar System?
A Location 1
B Location 2
C Location 3
D Location 4

What is the name given to this galaxy?
A the Andromeda Galaxy
B the Milky Way Galaxy
C the Large Magellanic Cloud
D the Pinwheel Galaxy

What accounts for most of the visible mass in the universe?
A asteroids B galaxies C planets D moons

Galaxies consist primarily of billions of __________.
A stars B planets C asteroids D moons

Which of these is a TRUE statement about galaxies?
A Galaxies are composed primarily of planets.
B Galaxies are made of billions of stars.
C Galaxies represent only a small fraction of the universe’s visible mass.
D Galaxies form around a single star.

Galaxies contain __________ of stars.
A hundreds B thousands C millions D billions

The process wherein atomic nuclei are fused into heavier elements in the core of a star is known as __________.
A proton emission
B chemical bonding
C nucleosynthesis
D chemosynthesis

The primary fusion reaction within the Sun and most other stars is __________.
A the fusion of helium into lithium
B the fusion of hydrogen into helium
C the fusion of heavy elements like iron
D the fusion of lithium and beryllium into carbon

Current theory states that all elements heavier than hydrogen, helium, and lithium formed either within stars or with the supernova explosions occurring after a massive star’s death. The best evidence for this theory is __________.
A cosmic background radiation
B the number of gas planets versus rocky planets
C the Doppler Effect causing a red shift
D the relative abundance of elements

When nuclei collide within particle accelerators, it mimics __________, a process within stars that could be a nearly endless source of energy.
A nuclear fission
B radioactive decay
C nuclear fusion
D nuclear radiation

Differences between the life cycles of stars may be revealed through the collection of data by X-ray __________.
A microscopes B telescopes C machines D crystallography

With the study of the life cycle of stars, astronomers must rely on a variety of rays from the sun. Sunlight is made up of more than just the radiation that is visible to the naked eye. Which is a type of ray astronomers study?
A S-ray B radiation ray C narrow ray D X-ray

To study the life cycle of stars more clearly, scientists needed to put telescopes into space. What is the name of the first telescope NASA put into space?
A Huston Space Telescope C Hutton Space Telescope
B Hudson Space Telescope D Hubble Space Telescope

Astronomers using visual, radio, and X–ray telescopes observe two different stars that vary in size, color, temperature and surface gravity. Because of these differences, the astronomers conclude that __________.
A the stars must be at different stages in their life cycle
B one of the “stars” must actually be a planet, rather than a star
C both stars must be nearing the red giant phase of their life cycle
D the stars must be part of the same two–star, binary solar system

A protostar would be considered a developing star that is not yet hot enough to engage in __________.
A nuclear fusion B nuclear outcast C nuclear fallout D nuclear waste

A star will run out of fuel and collapse due to __________.
A fleeing gases C gravity
B explosion D black holes

A star with less mass will live __________ because it consumes fuel at a slower rate than do more massive stars.
A less B the same amount of time C forever D longer

Neutron stars have high surface temperatures and their size greatly limits their __________.
A brightness B speed C density D rotation

Galaxies that exhibit the greatest red shifts are __________.
A the furthest away B the closest C the smallest D the largest

According to the Big Bang theory, the universe began 13.7 billion years ago and two hundred million years later, stars and galaxies __________.
A were already formed C began contracting
B began to sustain life D began to form

What dynamic process produces new oceanic lithosphere?
A sea floor spreading C erosion of ocean ridges
B underwater volcanoes D deep sea thermal venting
Which of the following is a reason why the ocean floor is said to be relatively new?
A The rate of sea floor spreading is rapid enough to recycle the ocean floor in a 200 million year cycle.
B The ocean floor only appeared about 180 million years ago.
C The ocean floor was only discovered relatively recently.
D The rate of sea floor spreading is rapid enough to recycle the ocean floor in a 4 billion year cycle.

What is one way that mid–ocean ridges provide evidence of sea floor spreading?
A Rocks at the crest of the ridge are young; rocks found further from the crest are older.
B Rocks all along the ridges are a consistent age.
C Rocks at the crest of the ridge are old; rocks found further from the crest are younger.
D Rocks at the crest of the ridge are much hotter than rocks found elsewhere.

With the sediment from ocean drilling, scientists found that the youngest oceanic crust is located at __________.
A continental margins C bottom of oceanic trenches
B ridge crests D subduction zones

The chain of Hawaiian islands is evidence which supports the idea that oceanic plates move along the Earth’s surface.

From the passage above, what was responsible for the creation of the Hawaiian islands?
A slab-pull B ridge-push C seamounts D hot spot

The diagram above shows the “zebra stripe” pattern of alternating magnetic fields on the surface of the ocean floor. Which of the following BEST explains how this symmetric pattern of alternating magnetic fields formed?
A tectonic plates spreading released magma which cooled in a pattern that matched the Earth’s magnetic field at the time
B tectonic plate convergence causes the Earth’s magnetic field to change, leading to symmetrical bands of positive and negative fields
C active underwater volcanoes erupt, releasing positively or negatively charged magma along both sides of the volcano
D deep water currents cause erosion on the seafloor, which occurs in regular, symmetric patterns that match the Earth’s magnetic field

A tectonic plate boundary that occurs when two plates move apart is called a __________.
A convergent boundary C divergent boundary
B transform fault boundary D major plate

A tectonic plate boundary that occurs when two plates grind past each other without the production or destruction of lithosphere is a __________.
A convergent boundary C divergent boundary
B transform fault boundary D major plate

The Aleutian islands off the shore of Alaska are an arc-shaped chain of small volcanic islands called a volcanic island arc. Which type of convergent boundary process formed these islands?
A oceanic-continental C continental-continental
B oceanic-oceanic D seafloor spreading

Which of the following would be considered a convergent boundary?
A two oceanic plates spreading away from each other
B an oceanic lithosphere diving beneath another plate
C a continental plate spreading away from another continental plate
D a continental plate grinding along side another continental plate

Which of the following would be considered a transform fault boundary?
A Himalayan Mountains C Mount St. Helens
B East African Rift Valley D San Andreas Fault

A rock is observed to have fossil impressions of plants preserved in it. This rock is most likely a(n) __________ rock.
A extrusive igneous B intrusive igneous C metamorphic D sedimentary

A rock is observed to be very dense with alternating, parallel bands of light and dark crystals. This rock is most likely a __________ rock.
A extrusive igneous B intrusive igneous C metamorphic D sedimentary

Which type of rock occurs when magma cools and hardens beneath the surface?
A metamorphic B sedimentary C igneous D limestone

Which of the following are the three major types of rocks?
A metamorphic, intrusive, extrusive
B sedimentary, metamorphic, granite
C igneous, metamorphic, pumice
D igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary

The Mercalli scale, the Richter scale, and the European Macroseismic scale are ALL used to measure __________ of earthquakes.
A only the magnitude C either the magnitude or the intensity
B only the intensity D both the magnitude and the intensity

How many types of seismic waves does a seismogram illustrate?
A 1 B 3 C 4 D 10

What is the minimum number of seismographs needed in order to find the exact location of an earthquake’s epicenter?
A 1 B 2 C 3 D None

An earthquake is produced when the slippage of rocks occurs at a weak point in the ground. What is that weak point called?
A focus B epicenter C fault D foreshock

What is happening when an earthquake occurs on a convergent plate boundary?
A two plates are colliding together
B two plates are dividing apart
C two plates are grinding past each other in a side-by-side motion
D two plates move together to form a mid-ocean ridge

When reading a seismogram, which are the first waves to arrive?
A S waves B surface waves C P waves D foreshocks

The epicenter of an earthquake is located __________.
A at the same depth of the focus C directly under the focus
B directly above the focus D beneath the earth’s crust

What scale is used for measuring the magnitude of small, shallow earthquakes by measuring the amplitude of the largest seismic wave?
A seismograph
B the Mercalli scale
C the European macroseismic scale
D the Richter scale

What sort of terrain is a violent eruption of lava likely to create?
A gentle sloping hills B sudden, steep hills C flat plains D mountains

What sort of terrain is most likely to be the result of a voluminous lava flow?
A flat plains B steep slopes C gentle slopes D new mountains

A lava flow that is considered fluid has a __________.
A high silica content C a large volume of dissolved gases
B low silica content D rhyolitic flow
Mauna Loa, a volcano on the Island of Hawaii, is the Earth’s largest volcano. Mauna Loa has enormous gentle slopes, making it a
A shield volcano, created by an accumulation of slow lava flows.
B shield volcano, created by a violent eruption.
C composite volcano, created by both violent eruptions and slow lava flows.
D composite volcano, created by several violent eruptions.

What is the term given to the rising plume of mantle that is located below the Hawaii Islands?
A convergent B hot spot C divergent D subduction

The volcanoes encircling the Pacific basin are known as __________.
A the circle of volcanoes C the volcano loop
B the disk of fire D the ring of fire

Which of the following statements is true?
A The sun provides more energy than all other sources of energy on Earth.
B Internal sources of energy in the Earth are greater than the energy from the sun.
C Society uses more energy than the sun provides in one day.
D Solar power provides most of the energy used by modern society.

Most of the Sun’s energy that reaches Earth is transferred through __________.
A conduction B convection C radiation D conduction and convection

Which type of energy source is harnessed by natural underground steam and hot water?
A hydroelectric energy C turbine energy
B geothermal energy D nuclear energy

Which of the following would be a disadvantage of solar energy?
A solar energy is a free fuel C solar energy can only be stored at night
B solar energy is copious D solar energy is non–polluting

When the Sun’s radiant energy is absorbed, it
A is dissolved by cooler temperatures. C makes molecules move slower.
B is released as solids. D is converted to heat.

The land and sea on the Earth’s surface absorbs about __________ of direct and diffused radiation from the sun.

A 50% B 75% C 85% D 100%

What TOTAL percent of solar radiation is lost to space by reflection and scattering?
A 10% B 15% C 30% D 50%

Solar radiation is absorbed and reflected by clouds. Which percent is reflected from clouds?
A 5% B 10% C 20% D 40%

Which of the following has the highest albedo?
A sand B forests C snow D water

Which of the following is a gas that serves a major role in the absorption of radiation that is emitted by Earth?
A carbon dioxide B carbon monoxide C nitrogen D oxygen

The burning of fossil fuels produces __________, which is an important greenhouse gas.
A carbon dioxide B oxygen C water vapor D helium

The process in which gas particles retain the thermal energy from solar radiation is called ___________.
A reflection C scattering
B the greenhouse effect D temperature inversion

How does the greenhouse effect on Venus compare with the greenhouse effect on Earth?
A The greenhouse effect on Venus is less than it is on Earth.
B The greenhouse effect on Venus is greater than it is on Earth.
C The greenhouse effect on Venus the same as it is on Earth.
D Venus does not have the greenhouse effect.

If the greenhouse effect on Earth increased significantly, the Earth’s climate could more closely resemble
A Mars.
B Venus.
C Mercury.
D the Moon.

Which of the following planets experience extreme cold temperatures due to a lack of a greenhouse effect in the atmosphere?
A Earth and Mars
B Mars and Venus
C Venus only
D Mars only

Differences in atmospheric gases cause differences in the greenhouse effect on different planets. The greenhouse effect on Earth is greater than the greenhouse effect on
A Mars, but less than the greenhouse effect on Venus.
B Mercury, but less than the greenhouse effect on the Moon.
C the Moon, but less than the greenhouse effect on Mars.
D Venus, but less than the greenhouse effect on Mars.

Which of the following drives the global circulation of air?
A unequal heating of Earth’s surface
B equal heating of Earth’s surface
C wind patterns from the Southern Hemisphere
D deep ocean currents

__________ redistribute heat between land and water.
A Ocean currents B Solar outputs C Winds D Clouds

The rotation of the Earth causes ocean currents in the Northern Hemisphere to
A deflect to the right. C create upwelling.
B deflect to the left. D cause evaporation of water.

Ocean currents transfer heat from hotter regions of the Earth to cooler regions and modify __________.
A polarity B climate C carbon dioxide levels D rotation of the moon

Which type of pressure is associated with clear skies and fair weather?
A high pressure C abnormal pressure
B low pressure D normal pressure

In the Northern Hemisphere, ocean and air currents veer to the right due to
A the rotational force of the Earth. C differing air pressures.
B the salinity of the ocean. D melting glaciers.

Part 2

One of the effects of a __________ is a build-up of pollutants, or smog, in the air.
A temperature conversion C thermal conversion
B temperature inversion D thermal convection

Air pollution in downtown Los Angeles is a temperature inversion which __________ pollutants.
A release B trap C diminish D distribute

The MAIN influence in how marine animals are distributed geographically is __________.
A the temperature of the water C how the currents distribute nutrients
B the salinity of the water D None of the above

The __________ is the layer of ocean water about 300 meters deep, where there is a rapid change of temperature with depth.
A thermocline B salinicline C thermozone D photic zone

What does all the landmass located on the equator have in common?
A volcanoes C warm temperatures
B cold temperatures D large deserts


The diagram above displays the Earth, with lines showing the equator, the Tropic of Cancer (23.5°N), and the Tropic of Capricorn (23.5°S). Which of these locations show where a tropical rainforest can be found?

Which of the following statements accurately describes the relationship between the global bands of rainforest and desert?
A Hot, dry air circulates over desert bands in the same way that cold, moist air circulates over rainforest bands.
B Cold, dry air rises from the desert bands and gathers moisture from the oceans on the way to the rainforest band.
C Warm, moist air rises from the rainforest bands, which causes rain; the resulting cold, dry air rests over the desert bands and absorbs the moisture from the ground.
D There is no relationship between the bands of rainforest and the bands of desert.

At irregular intervals of three to seven years, there is a warm current that flows southward along the coast of Ecuador and Peru replacing the cold Peruvian current. What is this weather pattern called?
A hurricane B tornado C El Niño D Santa Ana

9 With the onset of El Niño, strong undercurrents accumulate large quantities of warm water that __________.
A block the upwelling of colder water C create a more nutrient-filled environment
B create hot underground hot springs D lasts for about three years

With climate and the transfer of energy as heat, which three mechanisms transfer energy between Earth’s surface and the atmosphere?
A conduction, convection, radiation C convection, nuclear, reflection
B reflection, retention, radiation D conduction, solar, nuclear

Which of the following BEST describes the difference between climate and weather?
A weather is short term atmospheric conditions and climate is atmospheric conditions over a long time period
B weather involves the transfer of energy into the atmosphere and climate involves the transfer of energy out of the atmosphere
C climate is short term atmospheric conditions and weather is atmospheric conditions over a long time period
D climate involves the transfer of energy into the atmosphere and weather involves the transfer of energy out of the atmosphere

Which of the following locations would be MOST likely to have the greatest amount of precipitation during a year?
A the leeward side of a mountain C the base of a mountain
B the region known as the rain shadow D the windward side of a mountain

Which of the following BEST explains the way latitude affects climate?
A an increase in latitude has an increase in solar energy
B solar energy decreases with the increase in latitude
C a decrease in latitude creates wind
D an increase in latitude is associated with hot, dry conditions

Pangaea’s seasons brought weather extremes that were __________ those we experience today.
A less than B about equal to C mild compared to D greater than

With the movement of plates during the Silurian period, much of North America was covered by __________.
A thick layers of sand C vast forests
B tall mountain ranges D shallow seas

Carbon dioxide is formed by __________.
A respiration B photosynthesis C carbon fixation D All of the above

Nitrogen is released as a gas by __________.
A bacteria in the roots of legumes C the decomposition of proteins in the soil
B respiration D photosynthesis

Conversion of nitrogen gas in the atmosphere to ammonia by bacteria is
A ammonification. B assimilation. C denitrification. D nitrogen fixation.

Increased global temperatures have been attributed to increased level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. All of the following lead to an increased amount of carbon dioxide entering the atmosphere EXCEPT
A combustion of fossil fuels. C photosynthesis by phytoplankton.
B deforestation of tropical rain forests. D volcanic activity.

When wood is burned, carbon is released as __________.
A hydrocarbons B nitrogen C carbon dioxide D carcinogens

Which of the following is the primary external source of energy behind the water cycle?
A the Sun B rivers C oceans D atmospheric gases

An example of Earth’s external sources of energy driving the movement of carbon among reservoirs is
A convection currents that drive plate movements that release carbon dioxide into the air and water.
B solar energy that drives photosynthesis, which makes sugar molecules from carbon dioxide in the air.
C heat and pressure force that causes the formation of coal and oil from deposited biological matter.
D plate movements that break down carbonate rocks, releasing carbon dioxide into the ocean.

Plants move carbon dioxide out of Earth’s atmosphere by means of __________.
A cellular respiration B photosynthesis C equilibrium D transfusion

Coal is made of carbon and may remain inside Earth for __________.
A a few years C thousands of years
B about ten years D millions of years

The MOST abundant gas in Earth’s atmosphere is __________.
A oxygen B argon C nitrogen D carbon

The layer of Earth’s atmosphere where most living things are found is the
A thermosphere. B mesosphere. C stratosphere. D troposphere.

The layer of Earth’s atmosphere where all of the weather occurs is the __________.
A mesosphere B stratosphere C thermosphere D troposphere

On average, the temperature drop continues to a height of 12 kilometers, where the outer boundary of the troposphere is located. What is the outer boundary of the troposphere called?
A tropoplane B tropostop C tropopause D troposphere decline

The Earth’s atmosphere has evolved over time. Which gas was lacking during the beginning of early Earth’s atmosphere?
A water vapor B carbon dioxide C nitrogen D oxygen

Our planet’s original atmosphere was __________ the atmosphere that is today.
A similar to B less volcanic C more seasonal D more volcanic than

The maximum concentration of ozone is found in which layer of Earth’s atmosphere?
A thermosphere B mesosphere C stratosphere D troposphere


Where is the ozone layer located on this diagram of the Earth?s atmosphere?

Which of the following is NOT a major natural resource in California?
A gold B forests C deserts D wetlands

The geology of California has resulted in a wealth of __________.
A mineral resources C livestock resources
B freshwater resources D pharmaceutical resources

One of the resources of economic importance for California is a mineral that is formed as a solution containing dissolved salts. What is this mineral classified as?
A gas mineral B solid mineral C liquefied mineral D evaporite mineral

About how much of the oil produced in the United States comes from California?
A 2% B 15% C 25% D 50%

California’s geothermal energy is harnessed from __________.
A underground reservoirs of steam and hot water
B wind turbines throughout the state
C nuclear power plants
D fossil fuels beneath Earth’s surface

Which of the following is NOT a major natural hazard in Southern California?
A landslides B wildfires C earthquakes D tornadoes

Northern California has several __________ that cause natural hazards.
A snowstorms B volcanoes C ice storms D flashfloods

Which fault was responsible for the 1906 San Francisco earthquake?
A Santa Ana B El Niño C San Andreas D San Onofre

With an onset of weather change, which natural hazard must people watch out for when traveling through Southern California’s deserts?
A earthquake C high pressure wind
B lava flow from volcanic field D flashflood

Which of the following is a primary source of fresh water for California?
A precipitation B transpiration C evaporation D photosynthesis

Which is NOT a main source of California’s freshwater supply?
A precipitation B ocean water C surface water D ground water

Snow that falls in Sierra Nevada is a major source of __________ water supply.
A Nevada’s B Colorado’s C Arizona’s D California’s

Which major source of water for California originates far beyond the state’s borders?
A Missouri River
B Colorado River
C Columbia River
D Owens Valley River

California’s __________ consists of long aqueducts which carry water from the source to where it is needed.
A local water projects C out of state projects
B cement alleys D reservoirs


The geological hazard map above shows the distribution of fault lines in Southern California. Which of the following natural hazards are MOST likely to occur along these fault lines?
A wildfires
B earthquakes
C volcanoes
D landslides

On geologic maps of California, land elevation is indicated by __________ lines.
A elevation
B contour
C topographic
D hill

Which of the following is NOT a major energy source for California?
A gold B oil C natural gas D geothermal energy

California’s ability to sustain agriculture as a means to support its economy is due to which geologic feature?
A deserts B proximity to the oceans C mountains D flat valleys

Monday April 15
Test questions 75-125
HW: Study for CST on wed night, and please try to do your best
Friday April 13
Test Questions Part 2
Thurs April 12
Test Questions Part 1
Wednesday April 11
Draw all pictures on a piece of paper (small) so they fit onto 1 piece front and back
1) PG 499 FIG2 2) PG523 TEST PREP AND ANSWER 26-29 3)PG 527 FIG 1 4) PG 528 PIC, 5) FIG 541 FIG 9 +10
6) PG 535 FIG 5 7) PG 548 FIG 16 8) PG 562 PIC 9) PG 629 PIC 25-29

Tuesday April 10
No QFD or ?FD this week
strong>Heat Transfer– Conduction, Convection and Radiation measured as thermal energy (temperature) which is the motion of moelsules of a substance
Radiation – Sunlight or suns rays
Conduction – the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another (sunlight hitting the surface)
Convection – Heat transfer by fluid (gas,liguid) where cooler air/water sinks due to its heavier density replacing warmer air/water
Solar radiation – The sun prodoces the most energy 90% and plants use it to produce sugar called photosynthesis, then the Earth (geothermal,wind, etc), and then society produces very little (people)
Photosynthesis – CO2 + H2O –> C6H12O6 (sugar) + O2
Coriolis Effect – because of earths tilt and direction of rototaion ( global winds in the northern hemisphere turn to right, and in the southern hemisphere turn to the left)
Unequal heating – more direct sunlight hits the equator than the poles
Latitude – distance from the equator measured in degrees (horizontal lines) air sinks at 30 degrees creating hadley cells and most deserts and rainforests are distributed in bands located near this area where air rises and sinks
Jet stream – air current that travels around earth at 200-400 km/hr
Rainshadow effect – Winds get moist or wet (cold) when they ascend up a hill or mountain(windward side), and Dry and warm on the leeward side creating deserts
Air masses – huge bodies of air that move along earth
Tropical – start equator and move towards poles (warm)
Polar – start at poles and move toward the equator (cold)
Maritime – start on water and move towards land (wet)
Continental – move over continents and are Dry
Maritime tropical – wet humid air masses
Maritime Polar – Cool humid air masses
Continental tropical – Dry warm air masses
Continental Polar – Cold dry air masses
Factors affecting climate – Latitude – tropical zone is at 0 degrees lat. (equator) to 23.5 degrees north and south lat.and receives the most direct solar radiation, Temperate sone is located at 23.5 degrees n/s lat to 66.5 degrees N/S latitude which brings warm hot summers and cool winters
Altitude : higher altitudes have cooler climates
Distance to large bodies of water: mild marine climates and more humid summers
Long term changes in climate: fossil evidence suggests 4 major ice ages in earths history which include variations in earths position relative to the sun, suns energy output, and the movement of continents.
El nino’s – wind patterns in the pacific that bring warm air into ocean and bring precipitation to california and ocuur every 7 years and Mexico + south america,
CFC’s (chloroflourocarbons) air conditioners, refridgerants, and aerosol cans deplete the ozone layer and increase solar radiation hitting earth

Monday April 9
No QFD or ?FD this week

Objective: To understand the California Earth Science standards at a level to pass proficiently or better
4. a. Students know the relative amount of incoming solar energy compared with Earth’s internal energy and the energy used by society.
b. Students know the fate of incoming solar radiation in terms of reflection, absorption, and photosynthesis.
c. Students know the different atmospheric gases that absorb the Earth’s thermal radiation and the mechanism and significance of the greenhouse effect.
d.* Students know the differing greenhouse conditions on Earth, Mars, and Venus; the origins of those conditions; and the climatic consequences of each.
1) notes
Weather is the condition of Earths atmosphere at a particular time and place (short term)
Climate is the condition of the atmosphere over time (long term)
Atmosphere – 78% nitrogen, 19-21% oxygen, Argon 0.93% , CO2 0.036% and water vapor (clouds/precipitation)
Ozone – located in the stratosphere and is O3 and helps keep Earth warm by trapping heat and carbon dioxide in the lower atmosphere
Photochemical smog – caused by the action of sunlight and chemicals in the air creates a brown haze when pollutant react with one another in the air
Temperature Inversions – when a layer of warm air is trapped between 2 layers of cold air producing smog
Air pressure – result of columns of air pushing down on an area. High pressure (happy weather) little clouds, Low Pressure (lowsy weather) cloudy, precipitation
Air pressure decreases as altitude increases (lower pressure in Big Bear)
Barometer – measures air pressure (aneroid and mercury) measured in millibars
Layers of the atmosphere (from ground upward) – Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere
Theresa should make tacos
Troposphere – where we live, weather and the most changing conditions exist temperature decreases with altitude
Stratosphere – Layers of Ozone – temperature increases with altitude
Mesosphere – Meteroids burn up as they enter atmosphere here- temperature decreases with altitude
Thermosphere – Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) satelites – temperature increases with altitude
Electromagnetic waves – form of energy that can travel through space and classified according to wavelength
Radiation – direct transfer of energy and sunlight enters atmosphere as ultraviolet radiation and bounces off the surface as infrared radiation
Approximately 55% of Ultraviolet radiation (most) hits the Earths surface, 30% bounces back into space, and the remainder is scattered by clouds, water vapor and particles in the atmosphere
Greenhouse Effect – The trapping of heat by radiation near earths surface and is affected by increases in Carbon Dioxide (burning fossil fuels, gas, and manufacturing increase the greenhouse effect) Greatest on Venus (lots of CO2) HOT, then Earth (moderate CO2) WARM, and very little on Mars COLD



  1. cst next week ahhhhhh whyy

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