Posted by: mrborden | March 25, 2012

CST and Final Exam Review Week1

Thursday March 29
QFD:Be curious always! For knowledge will not acquire you; you must acquire it. ~Sudie Back
?FD: What size star is our sun?
Objective:To Understand the following standards at a level able to pass the CST proficiently
1a. Students know how the differences and similarities among the sun, the terrestrial planets, and the gas planets may have been established during the formation of the solar system.
1b. Students know the evidence from Earth and moon rocks indicates that the solar system was formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas approximately 4.6 billion years ago.
1c. Students know the evidence from geological studies of Earth and other planets suggest that the early Earth was very different from Earth today.
1d. Students know the evidence indicating that the planets are much closer to Earth than the stars are. 1e. Students know the Sun is a typical star and is powered by nuclear reactions, primarily the fusion of hydrogen to form helium.

1f. Students know the evidence for the dramatic effects that asteroid impacts have had in shaping the surface of planets and their moons and in mass extinctions of life on Earth.
1) Notes on standard 1
Geocentric system – Earth was at the center of the solar system
Heliocentric system (true) The sun is at the center of the solar system and planets revolve around the sun due to its mass and gravitational attraction
Solar system – The sun, planets, asteroids and all objects revolving around the sun
Terrestrial Planets – Inner 4 planets that are hot , rocky, small, have iron and nickel cores, few moons and short elliptical orbits around the sun
Mercury – Hottest days, coldest nights , no moons
Venus – Hottest planet due to thick carbon dioxide clouds and rotates backwards called retrograde rotation
Earth – only planet with liquid water, distance is 150,000,000 km from the sun called an Astronomical Unit which is used to measure the distance to other objects. Earth has 78% nitrogen, 19-21% Oxygen and less than 1% carbon Dioxide in its atmosphere
Mars – red planet, mainly carbon dioxide
Asteroid belt is a group of asteroids between the terrestrial (inner) and the Gas Giant planets
Gas giants – outer 4 planets made mainly of hydrogen , Helium, and methane and are super large, cold, have many moons, no surface, rings
Jupiter – Giant red spot which is a continuous storm
Saturn – Giant ring dtructure made of rock and ice
Uranus – methane atmosphere and it rotates on its side
Neptune – furthest planet frm the sun and has clouds
Kiper Belt – group of ice, rocks and small dwarf planets that are beyond Neptune and revolve around the sun
Sun – yellow medium size star that fuses hyrdogen into Helium called nuclear fusion which produces energy
Photosphere – inner most layer that produces light
Chromosphere – middle layer that produces its color and heat
Corona – Outer most layer which creates solar winds and electrical storms
Sunspots – cooler/darker areas on the sun and varies on the suns 11 year cycle
Solar flares – create explosions and can disrupt satellites and telecommunications on earth
Moon – a giant asteroid the size of mars collided with earth approximately 4.5 BYA and remained our satellite and causes a tidal bulge on earth
Asteroids, Meteroites – create craters on planets and are most likely the cause of mass extinctions on earth

Wed March 28
QFD:A day is Eternity’s seed, and we are its Gardeners. ~Erika Harris,
?FD: Describe the lifecycle of our Sun? How did it begin, How will it end
Objective:To Understand the following standards at a level able to pass the CST proficiently
Spectral lines – give astronomers information about stars including their chemical composition, and temperature (720)
Telescopes – x ray telescopes usually used to measure the life cycle and differences in stars
radio measure faint signals and distant objects, Infrared telescopes look at hot and cool objects in space, and visual telescopes usually look at objects that are closer to our sun and earth.
The electromagnetic spectrum – Pg 715 ranges from short wavelengths Gamma, x rays,To moderate, ultraviolet Visible and Infrared , to longer wavelengths like radio
cstprepstandard2Copyof quiz
Quiz: 100 pts (you Can Use your Notes)
1 In which galaxy is our solar system located?
A Andromeda 
B Triangulum 
C Milky Way 
D Ursa Major Dwarf

2 The Milky Way spans
A 100 light years. 
B 10,000 light years.
C 1000 light years. 
D 100,000 light years.
3 The center of the Milky Way galaxy is called the __________.
A focus 
B globular cluster 
C nucleus 
D core
4 Where is our solar system located within the Milky Way Galaxy?
A on one of the spiral arms about two thirds away from the center of the galaxy
B at the center of the galaxy
C at the very tip of one of the spiral arms
D by the galactic nucleus
5 What accounts for most of the visible mass in the universe?
A asteroids 
B galaxies 
C planets 
D moons
6 Galaxies consist primarily of billions of __________.
A stars 
B planets 
C asteroids 
D moons
7 With hundreds of billions of galaxies, astronomers have identified several types. Which of the following is a type of galaxy that contains billions of stars?
A elliptical galaxy 
B eclipse galaxy 
C illusion galaxy 
D constellation galaxy
8 Scientists believe that nuclear fusion within stars creates elements, including those heavier than lithium. How did these elements appear on Earth?
A Nuclear fusion also occurs inside the Earth’s core.
B Collapsing stars caused supernovas that scattered the elements throughout the universe.
C Earth broke off from the Sun, bringing elements with it.
D The Sun randomly emits the elements, which find their way to Earth.
9 Stars get their energy from nuclear fusion. During nuclear fusion, hydrogen atoms collide and form helium atoms. When the hydrogen atoms are all used up, the star becomes heavier. Heavier stars must start fusing helium atoms into heavier elements such as carbon and oxygen until the helium is used up, too. This evidence suggests that __________.
A nuclear fusion is an inefficient source of energy
B most elements in the universe were probably made by nuclear fusion
C nuclear fusion only works with light elements
D the formation of carbon and oxygen is what causes supernovas
10 The primary fusion reaction within the Sun and most other stars is __________.
A the fusion of helium into lithium
B the fusion of hydrogen into helium
C the fusion of heavy elements like iron
D the fusion of lithium and beryllium into carbon
11 Nuclear fusion can occur in the cores of stars under which condition(s)?
A normal conditions
B extreme heat and pressure
C extreme velocity
D extreme gravity
12 Which statement about the life cycles of stars is true?
A Life cycles differ between stars.
B All stars have the same life cycle.
C The life cycles of an individual star may change erratically.
D Life cycles cannot be measured.
13 Differences between the life cycles of stars may be revealed through the collection of data by X-ray __________.
A microscopes 
B telescopes 
C machines 
D crystallography
14 When studying the life cycle of stars, how do astronomers get around the distorting effects of Earth’s atmosphere?
A reflecting telescopes on Earth 
B larger telescopes
C larger eye pieces on telescopes 
D telescopes in space
15 A protostar would be considered a developing star that is not yet hot enough to engage in __________.
A nuclear fusion 
B nuclear outcast 
C nuclear fallout 
D nuclear waste
16 A star will run out of fuel and collapse due to __________.
A fleeing gases 
B gravity
C explosion 
D black holes
17 A star with less mass will live __________ because it consumes fuel at a slower rate than do more massive stars.
A less 
B the same amount of time 
C forever 
D longer
18 With accordance with the Doppler effect, if a source is moving away, its light appears __________ than it actually is because its waves appear lengthened.
A redder 
B weaker 
C brighter 
D bluer
19 According to the Big Bang theory, the universe began 13.7 billion years ago and two hundred million years later, stars and galaxies __________.
A were already formed B began contracting C began expanding

20 When nuclei collide within particle accelerators, it mimics __________, a process within stars that could be a nearly endless source of energy.
A nuclear fission
B radioactive decay
C nuclear fusion
D nuclear radiation
21 Our sun is a ________ star:
a) red giant b) white dwarf c) main sequence d) neutron
22 What is the MOST accurate estimate of the diameter of this galaxy?
A 1,000 light years
B 10,000 light years
C 100,000 light years
D 1,000,000 light years
23 What is the name given to our galaxy?
A the Andromeda Galaxy
B the Milky Way Galaxy
C the Large Magellanic Cloud
24 With the study of the life cycle of stars, astronomers must rely on a variety of rays from the sun. Sunlight is made up of more than just the radiation that is visible to the naked eye. Which is a type of ray astronomers study?
A S-ray 
B radiation ray 
C narrow ray 
D X-ray
25 To study the life cycle of stars more clearly, scientists needed to put telescopes into space. What is the name of the first telescope NASA put into space?
A Huston Space Telescope 
B Hutton Space Telescope
C Hudson Space Telescope 
D Hubble Space Telescope

Tuesday March 27
QFD:The vow that binds too strictly snaps itself. ~Alfred Lord Tennyson
?FD: How many light years does the Milky way span? Where are we located?
Objective:To Understand the following standards at a level able to pass the CST proficiently
Nebula – birthplace of stars composed mainly of hydrogen and helium
Star systems – Most stars are members of groups (Binary) = 2 or more stars called star systems, Our sun is rare to be a single star.
protostar – is the first stage of a stars life due to contracting gas and dust which becomes so hot nuclear fusion can begin which starts fusing Hydrogen atoms into helium atoms.
main sequence stars , 90% of all stars are in the main sequence or become Red giants, Super Giants, White dwarfs, black dwarfs and then collapse, due to gravity, and sometimes if above 15ANG, become black holes
Our sun will become a red giant in approximately 4 billion years, when it loses its hydrogen, and has all helium it will collapse and become a white dwarf until it has no more energy and then becomes a black dwarf or a dead star
Stars Life – depends on its mass, the bigger or more massive the star, the shorter its life.
Neutron stars – explode in a supernova but do not become black holes.
Absolute Magnitude – is the brightness of a star if it were a standard distance from earth. Very hard to calculate (728)
Apparent Magnitude – is its brightness as seen from earth, easier to calculate. (727)
Star Sizes (726) Supergiant; giant.medium size (sun)>white dwarf>neutron star
Temperatures of stars Hottest Blue, white yellow, orange, red (cool)
Parallax – apparent change in position of a star from different places (725) July 1st and Jan 1st to plot the actual distance to a star, because earth rotates around the sun.
Monday March 26
QFD: Science is simply common sense at its best. ~Thomas Huxley
?FD: How old is the Universe? The Milky Way Galaxy ( calif picture due)
Objective:To Understand the following standards at a level able to pass the CST proficiently 2. Earth-based and space-based astronomy reveal the structure, scale, and changes in stars, galaxies, and the universe over time. As a basis for understanding this concept: a. Students know the solar system is located in an outer edge of the disc-shaped Milky Way galaxy, which spans 100,000 light years. b. Students know galaxies are made of billions of stars and comprise most of the visible mass of the universe. c. Students know the evidence indicating that all elements with an atomic number greater than that of lithium have been formed by nuclear fusion in stars. d. Students know that stars differ in their life cycles and that visual, radio, and X-ray telescopes may be used to collect data that reveal those differences. e.* Students know accelerators boost subatomic particles to energy levels that simulate conditions in the stars and in the early history of the universe before stars formed.
1)Notes- Write all of this in cornell notes
Milky Way Galaxy – (739) Is a spiral galaxy that spans 100,000 light years across and Earth/Sun is located approximately 4/5 from the galactic bulge which is a massive Black hole.
Types of galaxies – Spiral which looks like a pinwheel and spins, elipitical galaxy, looks like a flattened ball billions of new stars mainly hydrogen and helium, Irregular galaxy, has no definite shape usually an older galaxy that loses gravitational attraction and form
Big Bang Theory – The universe was formed between 10-15 billion years ago (13.7BYA) from a single point due to an enormous explosion and has been expanding rapidly, Red shift shows 99% of the universe is expanding with less than 1% of objects blue shifting or coming towards the center.
Our solar Sytem (milky way galaxy) is approximately 4.6 Billion years old and was formed from a cloud of dust and gas made up of Hydrogen and Helium.
2) Film clip on sizes of stars
3)Draw the Hr diagram (size, temperature and brightness) quick draw!



  1. sorry to hear about your mom i hope she is better

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