Posted by: mrborden | November 13, 2011

Energy in Earth’s System


Fri Nov 18
QFD: The future depends on what we do in the present. – Mahatma Gandhi
?FD: What is a barometer?
Objective: ESS Standard 5. Heating of Earth’s surface and atmosphere by the sun drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents. As a basis for understanding this concept:
5a. Students know how differential heating of Earth results in circulation patterns in the atmosphere and oceans that globally distribute the heat.

1) Movie global warming
2) 3 paragraph Essay
Thurs Nov 17
QFD: For NASA, space is still a high priority. Dan Quayle
?FD: Describe the possible pathways of a ray of light ?
Objective: 4a. Students know the relative amount of incoming solar energy compared with Earth’s internal energy and the energy used by society
1) Students will complete a vocabulary exercise
2) Students will write a perfect paragraph using the terms Greenhouse effect, carbon dioxide, Global Warming, infrared radiation, ultraviolet radiation – EC if you can also use abundant properly in your perfect paragraph
Notes
Earliest atmosphere

The outgassings of the Earth were stripped away by solar winds early in the history of the planet until a steady state was established, the first atmosphere. Based on today’s volcanic evidence, this atmosphere would have contained 60% hydrogen, 20% oxygen (mostly in the form of water vapor), 10% carbon dioxide, 5 to 7% hydrogen sulfide, and smaller amounts of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, free hydrogen, methane and inert gases.[citation needed]

A major rainfall led to the buildup of a vast ocean, enriching the other agents, first carbon dioxide and later nitrogen and inert gases. A major part of carbon dioxide exhalations were soon dissolved in water and built up carbonate sediments.

Second atmosphere

Water-related sediments have been found dating from as early as 3.8 billion years ago.[17] About 3.4 billion years ago, nitrogen was the major part of the then stable “second atmosphere”. An influence of life has to be taken into account rather soon in the history of the atmosphere, since hints of early life forms are to be found as early as 3.5 billion years ago.[18] The fact that this is not perfectly in line with the 30% lower solar radiance (compared to today) of the early Sun has been described as the “faint young Sun paradox”.

The geological record however shows a continually relatively warm surface during the complete early temperature record of the Earth with the exception of one cold glacial phase about 2.4 billion years ago. In the late Archaean eon an oxygen-containing atmosphere began to develop, apparently from photosynthesizing algae which have been found as stromatolite fossils from 2.7 billion years ago. The early basic carbon isotopy (isotope ratio proportions) is very much in line with what is found today,[19] suggesting that the fundamental features of the carbon cycle were established as early as 4 billion years ago.

Third atmosphere

Oxygen content of the atmosphere over the last billion years
The accretion of continents about 3.5 billion years ago[20] added plate tectonics, constantly rearranging the continents and also shaping long-term climate evolution by allowing the transfer of carbon dioxide to large land-based carbonate storages. Free oxygen did not exist until about 1.7 billion years ago and this can be seen with the development of the red beds and the end of the banded iron formations. This signifies a shift from a reducing atmosphere to an oxidising atmosphere. O2 showed major ups and downs until reaching a steady state of more than 15%.[21] The following time span was the Phanerozoic eon, during which oxygen-breathing metazoan life forms began to appear.

Currently, anthropogenic greenhouse gases are increasing in the atmosphere. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this increase is the main cause of global warming.[22]
from wikipedia.com
Wed Nov 16
QFD: A sense of humor is a major defense against minor troubles.
Mignon McLaughlin
?FD Name an object in the 4 layers of the atmosphere?
Objective: Ess 4 b. Students know the fate of incoming solar radiation in terms of reflection, absorption, and photosynthesis.
1) Read Wind, lesson pgs 536-544 Sr all
2) Lab guidelines
3) vocabulary
Tues Nov 15
QFD: For NASA, space is still a high priority. Dan Quayle
?FD: Describe the possible pathways of a ray of light ?
Objective: 4a. Students know the relative amount of incoming solar energy compared with Earth’s internal energy and the energy used by society
1) 8aworksheetquiz2 QUIZ
2) check pictures/words
3) new seating chart
4)
Mon Nov 14
QFD: I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.
Chinese Proverb
?FD: What is a barometer?
Word of the day = Abundant (present in great quantity; more than adequate;)
Objective: 4. Energy enters the Earth system primarily as solar radiation and eventually escapes as heat. As a basis for understanding this concept: 4a. Students know the relative amount of incoming solar energy compared with Earth’s internal energy and the energy used by society.
4b. Students know the fate of incoming solar radiation in terms of reflection, absorption, and photosynthesis.

1) read heat transfer 532-535 , concept maps 2, and perfect paragraph
Notes:
Pg 526 Energy in the atmosphere
Energy travels from the Sun to Earth as electromagnetic waves – mostly visible light, infrared radiation, and ultraviolet radiation.
Earth’s surface absorbs most of the solar radiation that enters the atmosphere.
Clouds, dust, and gases reflect and scatter some light molecules. Water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and dust absorb small amounts of solar energy.
When earth’s surface is heated, it radiates some of the energy back into the atmosphere in the form of longer wavelength radiation.





pg 532 Heat Transfer
The energy of motion of molecules of a substance is called thermal energy.
Three forms of heat transfer are:
Conduction – direct heating of one substance by another
Convection – Colder, slow moving molecules fall making Hotter, faster moving molecules rise.
Radiation- direct heat transfer from ultraviolet sun rays
All three forms work together to heat Earth’s troposphere and make our atmosphere suitable for living things.









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